Effects Of Oil Pollution On The Environment

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Introduction Oil pollution is one of the most significant form of the damage to the marine environment, and it is a serious global issue. It can bring huge bad effects to the environment, marine lives and even the human being. It happens during the process of oil exploitation, transportation, handling, processing and use, due to leakage and emissions of oil caused by pollution, mainly in the ocean (Zhao, 2010). While the oil floats on the sea surface, it can spread and form oil film rapidly, and can be transported through diffusion, evaporation, dissolution, emulsification, photodegradation and biodegradation and absorption. Oil can be attached to the fish gills which will lead to suffocation; inhibit water birds spawning and hatching,…show more content…
The oil runoff from the land is complex, it can hang around in the ocean and move between water and sediment, which will make it difficult to effectively track (Dell’Amore & Nunez, 2014). (2) Land city sewage. The land city sewage is also a source of oil pollution to the ocean while countries all over the world will discharge the untreated or insufficiently treated water waste into the ocean that may contain pollution components. (3) Transportation of ships and tankers. The oil pollution may also come from the operational discharges from ships, oil spill that caused by accidents such as the collision of oil tankers or hit the reef, and operating sewage, ship repair sewage and ballast water sewage (Li, Wang & Ha, 2014). (4) Offshore oil exploration. During the offshore oil exploration, it can also contribute to the oil pollution including oil spill, oil remover, drilling mud, fuel, ballast water and oil production, etc., usually a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, synthetic organic matter and radioactive substances and other pollution components (Li, Wang & Ha, 2014). (5) Oil extraction platform. Similar to the offshore oil exploration, the pollution may occur when the accidental oil spills and other operation
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