Effects Of Opiate Dependence

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Opiate depen¬dence has the highest propensity for causing physical harm to the user, and societal harm through damage to family and social circles. Opiate dependence is not only associated with high mortality rates and poor health among dependent individuals, but also imposes excessively large economic and social costs upon the community including the costs of health care, social care, and crime. Considerable medical, legal, and interpersonal harm, including mortality, is associated with opiate use (Nutt et al., 2007).
The drug-reinforcing effect is affected by the onset of action and frequency of drug administration. It is inversely related to the rate of the drug’s onset of action; oral administration of drugs is less reinforcing than

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