Electrosugery Is the Process of Using Energy for Tissue Dissection

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1. Introduction
1.1 Background and History
Today’s technological world largely revolves around energy and its myriad of uses and implementations. Surgery is no exception and has followed this upsurge in knowledge and equipment. The vast majority of surgical procedures performed throughout the world involve the use of some device that applies energy to the tissue for cutting, coagulation, desiccation, or fulguration for the destruction or manipulation of the tissue. Whereas various energy sources, including electricity, ultrasound, laser, argon gas, microwaves, or radiofrequency (RF) waves, may be used, the fundamental principle involves tissue necrosis and hemostasis by heating. The process of denaturation of tissue begins with the
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1. Introduction
1.1 Background and History
Today’s technological world largely revolves around energy and its myriad of uses and implementations. Surgery is no exception and has followed this upsurge in knowledge and equipment. The vast majority of surgical procedures performed throughout the world involve the use of some device that applies energy to the tissue for cutting, coagulation, desiccation, or fulguration for the destruction or manipulation of the tissue. Whereas various energy sources, including electricity, ultrasound, laser, argon gas, microwaves, or radiofrequency (RF) waves, may be used, the fundamental principle involves tissue necrosis and hemostasis by heating. The process of denaturation of tissue begins with the irreversible aggregation of macromolecules and the unraveling of collagen helices around 60 C. Protein denaturation occurs between 70 and 80 C resulting in coagulation. Further heating to 90 C results in dehydration or desiccation. Beyond 100 C, the intercellular water boils, eventually vaporizing the cell allowing tissue cutting [1, 2]. Finally, tissue fulguration or carbonization occurs beyond 200 C. This whole process of using energy to perform tissue dissections and procedures is known as electrosurgery.

The history of electrosurgery began approximately 5000 years ago when the early Egyptians used cauterization to treat tumors. The method of electrosurgery known in modern ages though, was developed by Dr. William T. Bovie in the 1920s, where

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