The current study was conducted to investigate the changes in choroidal thickness within the macular area in eyes with various types of diabetic macular edema, by comparing the measured values with those of healthy normal subjects and of subjects with diabetic retinopathy without diabetic macular edema and to correlate the sub-foveal choroidal thickness measurements with the central macular thickness. Patients and methods: A prospective, nonrandomized, observational study was conducted to evaluate the central macular thickness (CMT) and the choroidal thickness (CH-T) in eyes with treatment-naïve diabetic macular edema. One hundred forty two eyes of 96 subjects were enrolled in the study. The current study included eyes of patients with …show more content…
The studied eyes were chosen if the eye met both the inclusion and exclusion criteria. If both eyes of the same subject were qualified, both were selected. Central Macular thickness measurement: The fast macular thickness OCT scan protocol was performed with measurements from 20 x 20-degree raster scans (consisting of 25 scans). The mean thickness of the central 1-mm zone of the 1, 3, 6 mm Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid thickness map was measured by the program incorporated in the Spectralis OCT software. Choroidal thickness measurement: To obtain the choroidal image, Heidelberg Spectralis SD-OCT-EDI button in the Spectralis software was used. The white-on-black image color was used for better contrast between the choroid and the sclera. The choroidal thickness was measured manually, using the caliper tool in the Heidelberg Spectralis OCT software, as perpendicular line, from the outer portion of the hyperreflective line corresponding to the RPE to the choroidoscleral interface. The choroidal thickness was measured from vertical and horizontal scans centered on the fovea. The CH-T measurements were obtained from the subfoveal and parafoveal areas at an interval of 500 μm up to 1500 μm from the center of the fovea (nasal, temporal, superior and inferior). All measurements were performed at the same time of the day from 1PM-3PM for the diurnal variation of the choroidal thickness.
For the health condition description of age-related macular degeneration I will discuss the etiology, onset, prevalence rate, body systems, body structures, and associated deficits that come and are associated with this disease. “AMD is the degradation of the cells at the center of the retina which is the layer of tissue at the back of the eye that registers light. The macula is responsible for ventral vision, which enables us to read, drive, participate in sports, and do anything else that requires focusing directly ahead. Macular degeneration distorts the heart of the vision field” (Macular degeneration, 1998). Sunlight and smoking are both influences of the onset of AMD (Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), 2014). It is suggested to avoid intense bright sunlight which may help reduce the retinal degeneration. Hats, sunglasses and any other accessories that can help protect the eyes from the sun are suggested. Cigarette smoking has also been linked to increasing the risk of developing AMD and it is recommended that persons should stop smoking to decrease their chance of developing AMD (Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), 2014). AMD does not develop until the sixth or seventh decade of life, although early
As humans, we don't always see with our eyes, but often with our imagination (Grunwald, 2016). Often times as people we never realize how useful our vision really is to us. You really don't think about something like that until it would actual happen to you. Throughout this essay, you will learn how the body is affected by Macular Degeneration (MD). Different signs and symptoms, as well as the etiology of MD, will be discussed. In the following, diagnosis tests and treatments may also be listed in order to help others who would like to know more about MD. Not to mention, you will learn the incidence and progression of MD. Furthermore, information though agencies and associations, as well as new research about MD will be given.
Results: The study included 40 eyes of 21 patients. All patients completed at least 6 months
For each patient, the automated visual field tests were obtained by Humphrey Field Analyzer and optic disc images by Topcon fundus camera. Horizontal and vertical cup-to-disc ratios were calculated by a manual, planimetric technique. Mean deviation (MD) and pattern standard deviations (PSD) were documented.
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness globally and in the U.S. adults younger than age 60. It is more common in individual with type 2 diabetes compared to those with type 1 due to long-standing hyperglycemia before diagnosis. Most people with diabetes eventually develops some degree of retinopathy and they are more likely to develop cataracts and glaucoma. The prevalence and severity of retinopathy are strongly related to individual’s age, the duration of diabetes, and the extent of glycemic control. Three stages of the retinopathy leads to vision loss; stage I – non-proliferative is characterized by thickening of the retinal capillary basement membrane and increased retinal capillary permeability, vein dilation, micro-aneurysm formation, and hemorrhages. Stage II – pre-proliferative there is progression of retinal ischemia with areas of inadequate perfusion that result in infarcts. Stage III – proliferative involves neovascularization (angiogenesis) and fibrous tissue formation within
Diabetic retinopathy cause change in retina such as changes in blood vessel diameter, hemorrhages (tiny spots of blood that leak into the retina), macular edema(swelling or thickening of the macula caused by fluid leaking from the retina's blood vessels) and new vessel growth. Diabetic retinopathy can be classified according to presence or non-presence of abnormal neovascularization as nonproliferative (NPDR) and proliferative(PDR). NPDR is the early stage of disease which it causes shrinking and sweelling of the blood vessels and changing the diameter. This random change in diameter affects blood flow to the retina. This variance of blood flow can also affect other areas of the eye - some areas do not get enough blood while other areas
Peer review final project, Group 10 - Diabetic Retinopathy presentation group, 1- Maryam Kaleem – My rating for Maryam Kaleem is: . 2- Aleksandra Yosifova – My rating for Aleksandra Yosifova is: .
In relation to the patient’s scenario, glaucoma may be related to their corneal thickness due to the fact that corneal thickness is important because it can mask an accurate reading of eye pressure, causing doctors to treat you for a condition that may not really exist or to treat you unnecessarily when are normal. Actual IOP may be underestimated in patients with thinner corneal thickness, and overestimated in patients with thicker corneal thickness. . Having normal corneal thickness and abnormal C/D ratios would still alter the patient’s vision. The C/D ratio is the cup to disc ratio of the optic nerve head, which is noted vertically and horizontally. The normal range for a white male is mentioned to be roughly 0.35/0.35 with variation
Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the result of a dynamic balance between aqueous humor formation and outflow. As a main parameter in the evaluation of patients at risk from glaucoma, it also provides the baseline pressure in ocular disease studies. While glaucoma is often associated with elevated IOP, glaucomatous changes in the retina and optic nerve sometimes occur at normal IOP; this is termed
Macular degeneration prognosis is different for every body and is different for each eye. One person may experience a different rate of progression.There is usually no way to know, once symptoms appear, how fast the disease will progress (Samuel, 2008). This disease can be prevented if it is detected and treated early.For the majority of people age related macular degeneration (AMD) progresses slowly and affects only their central vision. It is not blindness but it is considered low vision. High-risk patients should be included in a disease management program in an effort to prevent progression and low vison.
Optical coherence tomography provides high-resolution imaging of the vitreoretinal interface, neurosensory retina, and subretinal space. Optical coherence tomography can be used to quantify retinal thickness, monitor macular edema, identify vitreomacular traction, and detect other forms of macular disease in patients with diabetic macular edema. 105,106 OCT helps in early diagnosis of macular oedema as it is more sensitive than clinically examination, in deciding the treatment options for DME and also
Diabetic retinopathy is a disease of the light-sensitive membrane at the back of the eye (retina). It is a complication of diabetes and a common cause of blindness. Early detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy is important to keep your eyes healthy and prevent more damage.