Various studies has been presented many methods to prevent pulmonary embolism in high-risk patents which mostly focus on using of inferior vena cava filters, and anticoagulation. However, contradictory results are suggested within this research because only a certain type of inferior vena cava filters are examined, for example, prophylactic inferior vena cava filters. Dazley et al. (2012) shows the efficacy of propyl lactic IVC filters in preventing the development of venous thromboembolic event in patients undergoing surgery, while the other study proposes the different result. To understand how IVC filters and anticoagulation effect on high-risk patients. This paper study Dazley et al.’s (2012) research to express better understand how …show more content…
Small embolism that stuck in the peripheral branches of the pulmonary artery are clinically silent and may go unrecognized. People with moderate-sized emboli often present with breathlessness accompanied by pleuritic pain, apprehension, slight fever, and cough productive of blood-streaked sputum. Patients with massive emboli frequently specific with sudden collapse, crushing substernal chest pain, shock, sometimes loss of consciousness; so massive emboli often are mortal (Porth, 2011).
Spinal cord injury is the serous risk that cause VTEs and lead to PE, so Dazley et al. (2012) research concentrations on the efficiency of prophylactic IVC filters PE in patients undergoing major spinal injury to prevent PE. Pulmonary embolism has been present in up to 12% of patients undergoing spine surgery and 2% fatal rate (Dazley et al., 2012); therefore, patients diagnosed with PE require prompt and aggressive treatment with anticoagulation such as low-dose heparin and low molecular-weight heparin. However, the anticoagulation pharmacologic agent can cause bleeding problems, up to 67% (Dazley et al., 2012), and the most bleeding complication in spinal cord surgery is compressive epidural hematomas; therefore, the bleeding complications become worst in patients who cannot be treated with anticoagulation. Their effects require immediate surgical intervention and still may leave patients with permanent neurological deficits in as many as 37.5% of patients ((Dazley et
A study found a complication rate for PIVCs in place for 96 hours to be close to 50 percent. Some of the most recognized complications of PIVCs are phlebitis, occlusion, infiltration and extravasation and IV infection. Some of these complication could and in the past have caused death among patients. Many complications with IV fluids are leading up to more dangers complications. Most can be treated but they are very painful but some complications are life threatening such as deep thrombophlebitis caused by the building of a clot in a blood vessel. Some complications caused by IV therapy are very costly such as occlusion because they have to replace the catheter.
Venous thromboembolism refers to the formation of a blood clot in a blood vessel. While clots can form in an artery or a vein, this article focuses only on clots that occur in a vein ("," 2015). Critically ill patients are at an increased risk of a venous thromboembolism (VTE) due to VTE can manifest as a deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or a pulmonary embolism (PE). Risk factors include venous stasis, vascular injury, and hypercoagulable disorders. A majority of ICU patients carry at least one risk factor for VTE; additional risk factors are considered to have a cumulative effect…it is impossible to predict which patients will experience a
Mr. S was driving when he experience a stabbing chest and back pain for the first time. The pain was so severe he immediately went to his local ER. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion (VQ) scan and Computed tomography angiography (CTA) was done at his local ER. VQ scan was negative for pulmonary embolism (PE). CTA of the chest revealed
After a suitable vein has been visualized and the venipuncture site thoroughly cleansed, the needle is then placed into the patient’s vein for blood collection. Difficulties can arise if a needle is not fully inserted or if it went entirely through the vein and a hematoma will be the result. (Morgan, 2005) Hematomas are bruises due to the collection of blood from veins or arteries in the surrounding tissues. (Garza, 2010) Sticking a fragile vein, excessive probing of the needle if the vein is initially missed, and failure to remove the tourniquet before removing the needle are some other ways a hematoma can develop during a venipuncture procedure. (Garza, 2010) When needles are incorrectly inserted into a vein, blood is allowed to escape, forming a bruise. (Garza, 2010) If at any time this should happen, the phlebotomist should immediately end the procedure by first removing the tourniquet, then the needle, and apply firm pressure to cease the blood flow. (Morgan, 2005) Improper needle placement can also cause neurological damage. With deep insertion of a needle, hitting the nerve behind the vein is likely. (Garza, 2010) Radiating or shooting pain and sometimes numbness has been reported by patients in these situations. (Garza, 2010) Phlebotomist should always insert needles with care to avoid any injury to the
Identifying what factors contribute to occlusion are background questions (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2015) that should be addressed to ensure the foreground question is appropriately answered. Medication administration, fibrin sheath formation, duration, and frequency of use can each contribute to clot formation (Gabriel, 2011). If a patient is scheduled to receive a specific medication over a duration of time, it is imperative that the central venous catheter is patent and available for continuous use. Encouraging patient compliance will assist with ensuring that duration and catheter access doesn’t increase the risk of clot
Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) is a disease that embodies both pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). On the side of research, VTE is the most common preventable cause of hospital-associated mortality and is both the second most common medical complication and cause of excess length of hospital stay (LOS). Furthermore, with appropriate evidence-based prophylactic measures, the occurrence of hospital-associated VTE (HA-VTE) can be reduced by as much as seventy percent. Subsequently, there are approximately between 200,000 and 300,000 VTE-related deaths annually, which is greater than the yearly rate of mortality for breast cancer,
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including both deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is reognised as the leading cause of preventable in-hospital mortality. DVT is the formation of blood clots in a deep vein- usually the large veins in the leg or pelvis. The most serious complication of a DVT is that the clot could dislodge and travel to the lungs, becoming a life-threatening blood clot in the lungs, pulmonary embolism. When a blood clot breaks loose and travels in the blood, this is called a venous thromboembolism. An inflammatory reaction is usually present mainly in the superficial veins and, for this reason this pathology is often called thrombophlebitis. It is a disorder that can occur in all races and ethnicities, all age groups, and both genders. Despite a marked increase in federal and national efforts to raise awareness and acknowledge the need for VTE prevention, VTE continues to remain as an important and growing public health problem. Unfortunately, VTE recurs frequently and is commonly overlooked, affects both hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients, and results in long-term complications including chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTPH) and the post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS).
367). On the side of expert opinion, the CMS has had discourse regarding the potential broadening of events related to inadequate VTE prevention for both surgical procedures and medical patients (Maynard, 2016, p. 4).
With an incidence once as high as 40%, spinal cord paralysis in thoracoabominal procedures has declined, however, still remains a devastating threat post-surgery (Roman, Grewal, Taylor, & Grigore, 2014). Modern techniques for repair of thoracic aneurysms and dissections include an open incision with extracorporeal bypass and aortic clamping. This surgical procedure puts patients at great risk for spinal cord paralysis. Open procedures required meticulous reimplantation of intercostal blood vessels, deep hypothermic cardiac arrest, epidural cooling, and various pharmacologic interventions. As surgical technique has advanced to percutaneous endograft repair, most of these techniques are no longer needed. However, the incidence of paralysis is still prevalent in patients having a TEVAR procedure. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, has been studied as an additional pharmacologic adjunct in the prevention of spinal cord paralysis (Roman, Grewal, Taylor, & Grigore, 2014). Spinal cord injury can be multifactorial and a review of the literature indicates for patients undergoing endovascular repair of thoracic aneurysms, the use of multiple spinal cord protection strategies collectively reduce spinal cord injury compared to the use of naloxone as a primary measure.
Other times severe trauma can cause pulmonary edema such as blood in the lungs. Patients who are unresponsive for various reasons such as cardiac arrest, alcohol intoxication, or low blood sugar can aspirate stomach contents due to the loss of their ability to protect their own airway. Aspiration can severely impede the alveoli’s ability to exchange gases. The patient can suffocate if action is not taken promptly. The aspiration may also cause pneumonia or other types of infections that can be potentially deadly for the patient. This is one of the reasons why managing and controlling n unconscious patient’s airway is so crucial during pre-hospital care. Another critical respiratory emergency is a pulmonary embolism. A pulmonary embolism can be caused by a blood clot, by an air bubble, by a large foreign body in the circulatory system such as a catheter shear, or in rare cases by amniotic fluid in pregnant females. Whatever the cause of the embolism, the results can have the same deadly consequences. Most blood clots that become pulmonary embolisms originate in the legs of patients with poor circulation of some type of leg
The human body is a very complex organism composed of different types of systems and functions. All the functions that each system has, is what makes possible for the body to obtain life. One of the most important systems in one’s body is the circulatory system, where the heart, the lungs, and the blood vessels work together to form the circle part of the circulatory system. The pumping of the heart forces the blood on its journey. The body’s circulatory system really has three parts: pulmonary circulation, coronary circulation, and systemic circulation. Each part must be working independently in order for them to all work together. However, when one of the parts of the circulatory system does not
If a blood clot in your legs breaks away from the vein wall, it may travel to your lungs. This is a pulmonary embolism and is very serious. There may not be any symptoms, but if you start suddenly coughing and bring up blood or have sharp chest pain and shortness of breath with severe lightheadedness, you should immediately
Pulmonary embolism is defined as an obstruction of any pulmonary vessel This obstruction can form as a result of a clot or emboli. Essentially, the clot originates from a small distant vessel that rapidly migrates to the pulmonary system. Which in turn result in serious complications and/or symptoms that lead to mortality. Both men and women are equally affected by similar causative factors as well present with similar manifestations. Numerous causes and risk factors have been identified, with such evidence health care professionals and researchers alike have narrowed the gap to establishing accurate diagnostic practices. Clinical manifestations that are present, such as a simple cough to a severe symptom such as hypotension are problematic
A pulmonary contusion is a deep bruise to the tissues of the lung. The lungs bring oxygen into the bloodstream and remove carbon dioxide that the body cannot use. A pulmonary contusion causes the lung tissue to swell and bleed into the surrounding area. This interferes with the ability of the lungs to function. You may feel short of breath because you are not getting enough oxygen.