Essay On Solid Tumors

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A solid tumor is a benign or malignant abnormal mass of tissue that usually does not contain cysts or liquid areas. there are various types of solid tumors including colon carcinoma [29]. Despite their high prevalence [29], basic and clinical research conducted on solid tumors are still rudimentary [30], attributable to the heterogeneous nature of these tumors which limits the efficacy of anti-cancer treatments [31]. The heterogeneity in solid tumors occurs as the tumor mass enlarges as a consequence of an insufficient tumor neovascularization resulting in a failure to deliver adequate oxygen. This may lead to the presence of Hypoxic regions within these tumors [31, 32]. Eukaryotic life, from yeasts to humans, depends largely on…show more content…
Hypoxia-inducible factors are transcription factors commonly expressed in mammals including humans [41] and are known to be key mediators of the cellular response to hypoxia [42]. Originally believed to be restricted in the regulation of the erythropoietin gene expression in response to low oxygen availability [43, 44], it has been demonstrated that the HIF pathway operates in a wide range of physiological processes [43] (i.e. During normal embryogenesis [45] ), as well as in many tumorigenic processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, cellular metabolism, invasion and resistance to drugs !!!!![42]. Three HIF isoforms have been identified: HIF1, HIF2 and HIF3 [41]. While the role of HIF3 remains to be elucidated, both HIF1 and HIF2 are known to be involved in cancer progression [41]; however, HIF1 is the best studied due to its perceived therapeutic potential [46] and to its ubiquitous expression in all human tissues [47]. HIF1 is also shown to be associated with a poor prognosis and less survival in colorectal cancer cells [48].
HIF1 is a heterodimeric transcription factor consisting of one oxygen-dependent α-subunit and a
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