Methods Participants 51 participants - some of which were undergraduate students attending Concordia College, currently enrolled in an introductory psychology course - completed an online questionnaire that measured both extraversion and conscientiousness. They rated these two traits in both themselves and their oldest or youngest sibling, depending on which they identify as. Youngest children rated the firstborns in their family, and firstborns rated the last borns. Our participants needed to either be the firstborn or the last born in order for us to eliminate as much error as possible. Our participants were either students from ages 18-22 or adults no older than 50, and we surveyed both males and females. Design and Procedure Participants were sent an email with the consent form. Once they electronically signed it, we emailed them the link to an online questionnaire we created. The word “birth-order” was eliminated to reduce any bias that could occur, though we did ask participants to specify whether they are the firstborn or last born in their family. We also asked them to identify their gender, if they chose to. Participants rated themselves first, answering questions that measured their extraversion and conscientiousness, followed by a number of questions about their sibling’s extraversion and conscientiousness, as well as their sibling’s gender. Materials The questionnaire consisted of 32 items, with 28 focusing on the extraversion and conscientiousness measures.
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The order people are born in, whether oldest, middle or youngest, can have a major effect on their personality. The dynamics of birth order have long been debated in the scientific community. Some researchers are hesitant to assign and label specific traits to each family positon. However, most agree that birth order influences and factors into the adults we become. Birth order affects people in ways they are unaware of. It can form personalities and affect behaviors. Also, as a result of birth order, relationships and perspectives on life can be rather different between family members despite siblings having been raised together. Alfred Adler, a psychologist, believed that a child's position in the family greatly determines the child's personality
For the first article, the hypothesis of the experiment is that people will become more conscientious, emotionally stable, and agreeable as they grow older, but there will be temporary dips in agreeableness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness during adolescents. This experiment consisted of two different samples, one consisting of mostly people from the USA and the other consisting of mostly people from Russia. The American sample had around 16,000 children aged 3-20 years old, the participants were chosen because their parents anonymously volunteered on the website “personalitylab.org.” The Russian sample consisted of 1996 children aged 2-18 years old (48% of them were female), the participants’ parents
The object of this experiment was to determine whether or not birth order actually affected personalities and to see if oldest/youngest stereotypes were true. Oldest children are said to be bossy and rule followers while youngest tend to be ambitious and outgoing. To find out whether or not these assumptions were true, ten people were asked a series of questions about oldest and youngest children and what it was like growing up.
Is there a “personality tag” for each child, depending on their birth order? Does the family size, or even the parents’ life styles, affect anything? Birth order is more than just an old wives’ tale about predicting the personalities of each child in every family. “Birth order, put in its proper context, is a key that can unlock personalities and give you a new perspective on human nature.” (First- born?,1). Every child of every family has a personality tag, just because of their spot on the immediate family tree. Family size and birth order are factors that make the “personality tag” for the first born, middle child, last born, and only child of each family.
With the results of the quiz, my birth order personality is of a firstborn. I am actually the first born of my siblings, with my brother being the second child. With my personality, I am a natural leader who tries a to keep the existing way things need to be done. For a while, my parents told me that I developed jealously of my brother due to not being the center of attention. The older I got, the more I got used to having my brother around and had fun no matter who had the attention. After all, being the first born gave me insight on how my parents reacted when they get angry.
Extraversion is in essence the trait, which comprises all the optimistic social personality traits (Johnson, 2011). Conscientious individuals are highly organized. They are looked upon as highly dedicated workers, which most of the time leads to complete avoidance of pleasure activities (Johnson, 2011).
To measure this, Bleske-Rechek & Kelley required two siblings, either a firstborn and a laterborn or an older laterborn and the closest laterborn to them in age, one or both parents, and a same-sex peer of the original participant to fill out the 44-item Big Five Inventory (BFI; John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991). Siblings self-assessed, parents completed the test evaluating both of the children participating separately, and the peer evaluated the test according to their perceived original participants’ personality.
This article examined the development of personality from childbirth. Furthermore, it highlighted how childbirth affects the parents than in turn affects the new born. Childbirth shifts perspectives, responsibility, roles, and identity for those in the family (Galdiolo, Roskam). The article goes on to explain a five-trait structure of personality. These five traits include; neuroticism, Extraversion, agreeableness, openness to experience, and conscientiousness. Next the authors discuss the nature verses nurture in light of personality development. Without a doubt personality is greatly influenced by both. While biologics have a foundational role in personality development, the environment, social influences, and life events continually shape
Birth order is defined as being the chronological order of sibling births in a family. There is five ways to classify birth order: first, second, middle, last, and only children. Treatment plays a large role into how strong the birth order effect is. If out of four sons, a daughter is born, even if she is a middle child she will be treated at a first born, because she is the only girl. Age gap is also a major factor affecting birth order. Large age gaps result in birth order starting over (Birth Order, pg. 1-3). Referring to birth order, Dr. Hartstein, a psychologist says, “It’s been researched since the 1920s, and they really have found that over time the things that they have found stay the same and are proven to be honest and true representations of people (1).” A child’s growth and personality are greatly affected by birth order and the effects will be carried into adulthood (Birth Order, pg.1).
For centuries, one of the most curious stereotypes that have compelled most people is the role birth order has on their personalities and lives. Is birth order necessarily important? Does it honestly affect our personalities? Birth order has been controversial issue since biblical times for example Cain and Abel and Jacob and Esau. Psychologists have a lot of assumptions about how that individual behaves and responds to life whenever a person is a first born, middle child, youngest child, or only child. The questions remains, what difference does birth order make, and how true is it that birth order can even have an impact? Theorist has looked at the various studies regarding birth order most of which have used the example of the Adlerian concept of birth order to suggest intelligence and personality type the following paper will work to better understand if birth order makes a significant difference in the outcome of an individual’s life. Leman believes the key to sibling personality discrepancies lies in birth order and how the parents treat their children due to it. However, there are numerous psychologists responsible for the stereotypes of birth order, and how it contributes to various personality types in the study.
Overview of results: I scored in the High bracket on Extraversion compared to the general population. My raters and I had some disagreement on my level of E as the self-other difference was between .26 and .50. Further, my raters also had some disagreements with each other regarding my level of E as their SD was between .41 and .80.
Children develop different characteristics and values based on where they fall in birth order. Parents try to raise their kids all the same, but doing so becomes difficult when more children are born into the family. Children learn behaviors not only from their parents, but are influenced by their siblings as well. The kids form their own personal personalities using some of the learned behaviors. The personalities differ based off where each child arrived in birth order. The personality between siblings appears different based on the order they are born, children may be dependent on parental approval and cautious, independent and wild, or just go with the flow kind of people.
It is hypothesized that aspects of a firstborn personality will result in the firstborn being more self-confident, independent, conscientious, and more of a leader whereas the later-born is the opposite: very sociable, a follower, less conscientious and more social. The hypothesis was not supported, in that the results do not show all the aspects of personalities that were expected. Categories such as: self-confidence sociability and leadership are as expected, but conscientiousness is a surprise. The firstborn is instead less conscientious than the later-born. An extraneous variable that could have affected the results include how the individual is raised. One way of overcoming participant variables could be to test both or all siblings as well
The purpose of this journal was to show that birth order has a direct relationship with psychological outcomes. Dunkle, Harbke, and Papini show how they performed an analysis and discuss their findings regarding birth order. Their focus of this research was to explain if the outcomes support the Null Hypothesis or if their findings contradict the hypothesis. In their research they find
The debate between whether there is a correlation between familial birth order and specific personality traits, such as intelligence, success, and social skills, has been discussed and argues since 1874, where Francis Galton started to first look at the subject. The birth order’s impact on the individual is a subject that still is questionable on whether it exist or not to this day. There are plenty of studies that argue for and against this correlation, but the real question is which is right? Through this study I will look to try and reassure a reassure a correlation between birth order and personalities traits, through examining the main focus question, how does birth order influence the personality and learning styles of an individual?