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Explain What Critical Events In Ischemic Cascade

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Critical events in ischemic cascade. Adapted from Midori et al. (2012) (17). Following ischaemia, the deprivation of oxygen and glucose to the brain lead to loss of ATP (energy loss) and ion pump failure. The loss of ion concentration gradients causing to cytotoxic oedema and releasing of excitatory amino acids (EAAs). Following glucose lessening cell aerobic metabolism switch to anaerobic, which resulting to metabolic acidosis. All of these events lead to cell death, or necrosis. Ischaemia also caused to the upregulation and activation of many immediate early genes and stress signals, which lead to inflammatory responses, cell apoptosis and, subsequently, activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as a damaging protease which can lead
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