Optic Essay

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Fibre optic possibly the future of wires. Made to transfer light at impressive speeds allowing the ever growing internet, faster. But it isn’t only for the internet; it can be used as a light guide in surgeries, wiring in aircraft for field networking.
What materials make up fibre optic cable, and why these?
• Core – The inner piece of the cable with a high refractive index.
• Cladding – The outer piece of the cable with a low refractive index.
• Jacket – The outer protective layer usually made of polyurethane.
• Buffer – It is another protective layer usually made. A tight buffer usually consists of polymer which is coated in intimate contact with the primary coating applied during the manufacturing.
So we know the core needs a higher refractive index then the cladding but what is a refractive index anyway? Well the refractive index of an optical medium (material which electromagnetic waves can transmit through) is a number without association that outlines light/ radiation that spreads through the medium. So n=c/v , n being the refractive index, c being the speed of light in the vacuum (Space) and v is the speed of light in the material. E.g. the refractive index of olive oil is 1.47 so light travels 1.33 times slower in olive oil then a vacuum. Light is contained inside the core by total internal reflection; total internal reflection is when a transmitting wave hits a medium boundary at an angle larger than the particular critical angle to the normal of the surface. This

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