Glasgow Coma Scale And The Renin-Angiotensin System

Decent Essays
Question 1:
An unaltered consciousness occurs when the Renin-Angiotensin (RAS) system is working at 100% (Blyth & Bazarian, 2010). When changes such as head traumas, aging, concussions, strokes, etc. occur the RAS system would be damaged overtime (Barritt & Smithard, 2011). The more often these occur, the more it is damaged. If RAS does not seem to be working adequately it would mean that it is not be properly communicating with the cerebral cortex, this then causing the patient to become less alert (Craig, 2003). His consciousness can only be tested by external stimuli to test for the functioning of the RAS (through Auditory/Visual stimuli which in turn activate RAS). This is why the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used as a measure a conscious state (Braine & Cook, 2017). It tests and scores the visual, verbal and motor response. The lower the GCS score the more of an altered conscious state the patient is said to have. Typically the lower scores also have a worsened prognosis and/or poorer outcome on the Glasgow Outcome Scale in an adult (Weir, et al., 2012). Mr Shepard had altered level of consciousness at a GCS of 12. When a patient has no altered level of consciousness they are given a score of 15 (Mena, et al., 2011). Anything less than that actions need to be implemented to prevent further deterioration and try to bring the GCS back to 15 so there is no altered conscious state. Your conscious state is affected by two main things; oxygen and glucose (Mergenthaler,
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