Granting that literature, on a realistic plane, is a replica of the world, and a short story is the characterization of real life events between real life characters in a manner that is as realistic as possible, sociolinguistics certainly provides useful tools and insights in the form of narrative analysis, conversational analysis, conversational maxims and so on.
As Fennell and Bennett rightly point out, “Sociolinguistics in general, not just conversational analysis, has much to offer to literary studies…”. They further go on to say that ‘approaching the social systems which are set up in literary works through the medium of linguistic analysis, rather than looking at the social systems alone, is often a much more concrete and revealing …show more content…
2. Participants (P)
Any speech event, or for that matter, any communicative event includes interlocutors of various types like speaker-listener, addresser-addressee or sender-receiver. These two roles may be reversible or irreversible. Further, the hearers may be one or many as in the case of a public lecture, or the hearer/hearers may not even be in front of each other, as in the case of a telephone conversation. The sender and the receiver may not see each other. But underlying all these communicative events, there is a mutual expectation and awareness on the part of the roles about the presence or existence of the other role. For instance, when a devotee prays to God, he expects that there is God and obviously the unseen God is the other participant. Similarly, when a poet writes a poem, he does not know who the readers are, but he expects them to be present somewhere. When someone with authority rebukes another person who is in a subordinate position, there will be no change of roles.
3. Ends (E)
Every communicative event takes place with certain objectives or outcomes or even personal goals of the participants. Sometimes these personal goals may be contributory to each other or they may be in conflict with each other. For instance, in a court room, the goals of the prosecution lawyer and those of the defense lawyer are in conflict with each other. But in spite of these personal goals, there may be a common social end for all the
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When I consider my interpersonal relationships and connect a scenario that I believe is a common interpersonal communication ethics challenges for several individuals, it is Attentiveness; finding common ground, or agreeing. (Arnett et. al, 2008, p. 131)
Communication takes place in any and all locations, intentionally and unintentionally, and it can be positive or negative. Many of our personal traits and character qualities can affect how we communicate with other people, and how they communicate with us. Recently, I had an experience that further proved this point to me in a very real and tangible way.
In the King’s Speech, there are many interpersonal communication concepts. The movie is based on a true story where Bertie the second son of King George the V who passed away, is crowned King George the VI, but has suffered speech impediment since he was five years old. His wife Elizabeth, the future queen of England arranges an appointment with a speech therapist Lionel Logue to help him overcome his stammer. The two developed a friendship as time goes on and helps Bertie the future king of England overcome his stammer and deliver a speech before going to war with Germany. One of the things that stuck out the most of interpersonal communications is perception. According to the text perception is “a process of using our senses to respond stimuli.” The subtopics I chose to discuss about The King’s Speech are “self-fulfilling prophecy, symbolic interactionism theory, identity management theory and stereotyping.”
First of all, the contact zone class can be applied mainly to the extent of developing one’s thoughts and ideas because of its focus on ‘conversation’ or speech. A writing process is much more than just to put what a writer intends to say into words. In addition, Pratt pointed out the utopian quality and abstract idea of the speech community. However, it is also true that in some contexts like academic setting that kind of uniform idea of speech community has functioned well to give necessary order and stability for the development of the community.
Negotiation is a fundamental form of dispute resolution involving two or more parties (Michelle, M.2003). Negotiations can also take place in order to avoid any future disputes. It can be either an interpersonal or inter-group process. Negotiations can occur at international or corporate level and also at a personal level. Negotiations often involve give and take acknowledging that there is interdependence between the disputants to some extent to achieve the goal. This means that negotiations only arise when the goals cannot be achieved independently (Lewicki and Saunders et al., 1997). Interdependence means the both parties can influence the outcome for the other party and vice versa. The negotiations can be win-lose or win-win in nature.
The practice of settling human conflicts through intermediaries has had a rich history in Western and non-Western cultures and therefore a broad range of forms and functions. The conflicting parties in most of the societies and at all stages of social interaction have had access to external actors to whom they approach when they come to the conclusion that they are incapable to handle their different opinions by themselves. In this case, an ordinary response to identify contradictions in objectives and values be-tween adversaries is to enter into a process of negotiation in order to achieve an agreement on such differences, which is mutually acceptable. In consequence, negoti-ation seems to be a universal, human
The value of literature delineates an opportunity for humanity to achieve collective growth. The intellectual capability of both individuals and communities are affected by the importance assigned to literary works. Lack of such regard results in a limited capacity for sociological cohesion consequently shaping the discourse of an era. Austen inadvertently expresses the minimal regard for written material in her society through Pride and Prejudice. The exclamation “there is no enjoyment like reading!” highlights the passion felt for such an activity. However, this desire can be attributed to discourse. Austen exhibits this through the cultural expectation that a woman “must have thorough knowledge”, furthered by the dialogue of gaining cognizance
Frye begins by exploring the relation of language and literature. “What is the relation of English as the mother tongue to English as a literature?” he asks (p. 16), and before he can give an answer, he has to explain why people use words. He identifies three different uses of language, which he also terms types or levels of language.
George Bernard Shaw and John Edwards seem to share some quite similar beliefs regarding language and identity. More specifically, how language alters one’s identity. Edwards uses discussions involving class, gender, and dialect; while Shaw uses his character, Eliza Doolittle to discuss these connections between language and identity. Both authors debunk the stereotypical perception about language and groups, just in two separate ways. Edwards explains it over several chapters of his text “Language and Identity”, whereas Shaw demonstrates it through one person.
I chose to examine a strategy that helps create effective communication between individuals. The strategy, number 57 in the book, is called “I-Statements” and it emphasizes that how you say something is just as important as what you are saying (Lazarus,1997, p.76). The aim of this strategy is to reduce tension and arguments by focusing on using “I-Statements” rather than “You-Statements.” A You-Statement is directed towards the listener, and implies that they have done something wrong or are
In the article, “Communication: Its Blocking and Its Facilitation” by Carl R, Rogers, a psychotherapist who wrote a book without being a teacher of writing, asserted that psychotherapy will create guidance towards failures of communication and can improve communication between people. Rogers declared that the foremost barrier to be beneficial towards the interpersonal communication is one examining from their perspective. But the barrier can be eliminated if the people stop judging other people’s ideas , opinions without analyzing the other person’s point of view meaning putting themselves in a person 's situation. In fact, he briefly acknowledges the complication of communication towards the people but also provides diverse ways to improve our communication, mainly when contributors are known to support their role. Also, valor is known to be listening compassionately, meaning one extensive towards the risks of changing. In this issue, Rogers elucidates the indifference towards caring about the third party that can improve the adversary achieving mutual understanding by encouraging them as partners to resolve problems, instead of being foes and holding a grudge. Moreover, as social scientist, there is
The first way to ascertain that Austen is commenting on the social debate around novels is the fact that Austen explicitly mentions it through the use of the intrusive narrator, defined in Baldick’s The Oxford Dictionary of
Conflict can be found every day in the news. Whether it be in a newspaper, on the Internet, or on the television there is evidence of conflicts over the media. The resolutions are not always clear and it depends on whether a formal form of mediation is used as to whether or not the public will hear of the resolution that came to pass from the conflict. This paper will take a look at one story found on the internet recently that talks about a conflict and how its resolution came about.