Granting That Literature, On A Realistic Plane, Is A Replica

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Granting that literature, on a realistic plane, is a replica of the world, and a short story is the characterization of real life events between real life characters in a manner that is as realistic as possible, sociolinguistics certainly provides useful tools and insights in the form of narrative analysis, conversational analysis, conversational maxims and so on.
As Fennell and Bennett rightly point out, “Sociolinguistics in general, not just conversational analysis, has much to offer to literary studies…”. They further go on to say that ‘approaching the social systems which are set up in literary works through the medium of linguistic analysis, rather than looking at the social systems alone, is often a much more concrete and revealing
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2. Participants (P)
Any speech event, or for that matter, any communicative event includes interlocutors of various types like speaker-listener, addresser-addressee or sender-receiver. These two roles may be reversible or irreversible. Further, the hearers may be one or many as in the case of a public lecture, or the hearer/hearers may not even be in front of each other, as in the case of a telephone conversation. The sender and the receiver may not see each other. But underlying all these communicative events, there is a mutual expectation and awareness on the part of the roles about the presence or existence of the other role. For instance, when a devotee prays to God, he expects that there is God and obviously the unseen God is the other participant. Similarly, when a poet writes a poem, he does not know who the readers are, but he expects them to be present somewhere. When someone with authority rebukes another person who is in a subordinate position, there will be no change of roles.
3. Ends (E)
Every communicative event takes place with certain objectives or outcomes or even personal goals of the participants. Sometimes these personal goals may be contributory to each other or they may be in conflict with each other. For instance, in a court room, the goals of the prosecution lawyer and those of the defense lawyer are in conflict with each other. But in spite of these personal goals, there may be a common social end for all the

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