Group Theory: The Five Stages Of Group Development

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A group can be defined as two or more individuals who come together by interacting, influencing, and accepting expectations to achieve a goal or task. Most successful groups are made up of a diverse mix of behaviours and usually take on distinct roles. Group dynamics refers to the various forces operating within or between a group. These forces include leadership, power and status issues, nature of group members, communication and structure of/within the group.

Dr. Bruce Tuckman, 1965 had established a model which explains the various steps in group formation. It implies that groups do not usually perform at maximum level when they are first formed. They encounter several stages of group development to become effective. Below are the 5 stages where group members must address
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They show minimum interaction and are trying to understand the goals to be achieved which at times are not clear.
• Storming – This stage sees disagreement and conflict about the leadership, purpose and working procedures of the group. There are a lot of doubts and challenging between group members which also develops to some form of power struggles.
• Norming – This stage occurs when group members are developing a shared vision and setting clear objectives by understanding each one’s strengths. They discuss how responsibilities need to be divided and evaluate their progress to achieve successful completion of goals.
• Performing – This stage sees high trust, open communication, and support by group members for each other. They work together and effectively without much assistance towards their goals.
• Adjourning (added at a later stage in 1975) – This stage sees a breakup phase when the tasks are completed. There is a sense of triumph, at the same time, mixed feelings of sadness and closure is felt as group members begin to
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