High rates of teacher turnover has placed huge strains on school districts, moreover, on student performance. It has served to be disruptive to program continuity, staff and student cohesion, and growth and performance, particularly in urban schools. Researchers have long sought to understand why recruiting and retaining quality teachers in urban schools remain a significant challenge (Freedman & Appleman, 2009). According to Ingersoll (2004), with a quarter of the teaching force leaving their classrooms after one year and almost half leaving within five years, teachers in high poverty, urban schools are even more likely to quit. This paper seeks to examine the reasons behind such low proficiency in teacher retention. In this literature review we will examine research on teacher retention in various types of schools and the impact of school climate on teacher retention in order to shed some light upon the issues faced in low performing urban schools such as Park Elementary.
Characteristics of Schools Most Likely To Maintain Teacher Retention
High Poverty Schools Nationally, teacher turnover is 50 percent higher in high poverty schools than in more affluent schools (Allen, 2005). He indicated that 20 percent of teachers in high poverty schools have three or less years of teaching experience, compared with 11 percent in low poverty schools. Hanushek, Kain, and Rivkin (2004) discovered that Texas teachers tended to move from high to lower poverty schools. It was discovered
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Education is the most vital part of man’s existence. The concept of education started in the ancient days and continues to the modern age. Education has existed before this current age, but modern education has been labeled as the most significant part of any possible profession. This assumption is not making waves in the United States of America only, but in the whole world wide. Despite the unique and distinct languages that exist throughout the world, young and developing minds still seek education and new knowledge as technology keeps changing. Education is the backbone and the platform in which we build and develop our own unique ideas that has become
Fifty percent of new teachers quit with in the first five years of teaching (NEA, 2015), with this number being so alarmingly high it begs the questions: Why do so many teachers leave after going through years of college for this profession? Were teachers not prepared for the job, through college training, what should colleges teach in order to better prepare teachers?
Overall, high rates of teacher turnover have direct monetary costs and alter the distribution of teacher experience and skill across districts. Dr. Maxwell, the Superintendent of PGCPS formed a Transition Team from which four subcommittees were formed one being the Teaching and Learning Committee (TL). The TL examined research on professional literature to answer the question and determined that in order for students to receive the high-quality education that prepares them to succeed in post-secondary opportunities, staff members must have instructional resources and professional learning opportunities to build their capacities
Like leadership turnover in other professions, turnover rates at more challenging schools are on the higher end of that spectrum (Beteille, Kalogrides and Loeb 2011, Boyd, et al. 2008, Clark, Martorell and Rockoff 2009). For instance, large, urban districts have similar turnover rates: Miami-Dade County Public Schools (MDCPS) is 22%, Milwaukee is 20%, San Francisco 26%, and New York City is 24% (Beteille, Kalogrides and Loeb 2011, Boyd, et al. 2008, Clark, Martorell and Rockoff 2009). However, within MDCPS, the turnover rate is higher for the district’s highest-poverty schools (28%), versus lowest-poverty schools (18%) (Beteille, Kalogrides and Loeb 2011). New York City school findings were similar (Clark, Martorell and Rockoff 2009). Low-performing, low-SES schools that lose an effective principal, often struggle due to having a replacement that is less-experienced and less-effective (Beteille, Kalogrides and Loeb 2011, Branch, Hanushek and Rivkin 2012).
The main arguments in this ERIC Digest article is that there is an increasing need of teachers of color, but the there are not enough minorities going into the teaching profession. The point of this article is to highlight the the unbalanced increase of minority students and the decrease of minority teachers in schools, and how the decrease of minority teachers affects both minority and non-minority students. The article goes on to highlight data about the number of minorities and whites who enter the education profession compared to the number that drop out of the profession after five years or so and their reasons for leaving.
According to the state report card, Salem Elementary School’s socioeconomic status of students is strongly high in poverty. Correspondingly, all of the students enrolled in Salem also have some type of economic disadvantage. As discussed in our EDTE 2020 class, high poverty areas tend to have teachers “with less experience”, who do not have “proper certification”, or who have a “high turnover rate”. This is the complete opposite at Salem, as it’s stated on the report card that all teachers have a bachelor and a master’s degree, with over 72% of teachers being
There are many contributing factors to low teacher turnover, however, the main issue is a lack of support and respect for our teachers. Instead of working on maintaining and providing support for our current educators, the conversation usually surrounds expensive and often ineffective recruitment programs. The harsh fact is that it is very expensive to live in our valley and the current teacher salary/benefits are not enough to attract top talent. We need to have a serious conversation with our teachers in order to learn what incentives they need to be successful in their roles as well as to maintain a comfortable living. Teachers are the one profession that truly molds the future of our
The issue of teacher shortage today is continuing to grow. The effects of the achievement gap are reaching the teachers, not just the students: “...good administrators and teachers, who are doing their best under difficult circumstances, will be driven out of the profession…,” (Boyd-Zaharias 41). The achievement gap is part of the reason teachers feel they are underpaid, which happens to be one of the leading cause in teacher shortage considering, “Teachers were paid two percent less [than comparable workers] in 1994, but by 2015 the wage penalty rose to 17 percent,” (Long). Being a teacher requires passion in order to stay in the field, especially if the money in teaching is decreasing. Money is an important aspect for people when it comes to their careers, therefore, fewer people want to become teachers. This lack of teachers and the lack of college students studying to become a teacher leads to unqualified teachers and larger classroom sizes (Ostroff). Both of these causes are eventually affecting students’ learning environments. I chose this issue in education for my project because I have personally felt these effects, and I know others who have as well. As a future educator, I want to see better wages and better benefits, but this can only happen with qualified, passionate teachers. I plan on being one of them, and I plan on sparking a change. I am a future educator fighting to end teacher shortage.
Another answer to the problem was described earlier, which is in the administration of school districts towards their less skilled, underperforming teachers. According to the report by Arne Duncan, “The Irreplaceables,” the rate at which teachers are leaving the field is the same for both high performing teachers and underperforming teachers. The percentage of the teaching population is similar between both sides of this, about 20% of teachers are considered high performing and 20% underperforming. While it may not be practical now to mandate that the school district become stricter on the performance of its teachers, if financial incentives are given to the high performing teachers, a larger population of them would stay and, possibly, a larger amount of them would come to the city of Detroit. If this were to happen, then it would suddenly be practical for Detroit to have its schools be stricter on underperforming teachers, producing a sort of snowballing effect of improvement on Detroit’s school system.
There is a consensus among the concerned stakeholders that the quality of teachers is the leading factor in determination of student performance. In the case of United States, the student performance can only be given an impetus by the efforts which the state can make, under all costs, to develop and retain high quality teachers. The measures undertaken determine the level of turnover of the school teachers. Lazear (2009) similarly argues the length of employment is a critical factor in averse risks of employment a trend contrary to teachers treatment. The turnover of public school teachers will refer to the rate at which the state, which is the teacher’s
The research linking instructional coaching with teacher retention is not large and the findings are contradictory. One conclusion Kline, Colton, Altemus, and Killion (2011) drew from their study of the effectiveness of instructional coaching in five large school corporations was that all districts experienced increased teacher retention, with Springfield Public Schools realizing a decline in teacher attrition from 31% to 13% over a six-year period and netting a savings of $914,954.
Maryland. The study evaluated the perceptions of principals, teachers, and support personnel concerning specific teacher attributes, characteristics, and behaviors that influence retention. It did not identify the actions principals take to promote retention. While the findings of these studies and others provide valuable data regarding the bigger issue of teacher retention, it is believed that more in-depth exploration will provide greater understanding of the role of the principal and the strategies they employ to reduce teacher retention. DeAngelis and Presley (2014) conducted a study to provide an overview of the findings of previous studies, paying particular attention to distinguishing between factors that have been found to influence teachers’ decisions to leave the profession vis a vis those factors
Negativity and low teacher retention rates are a product of teacher isolation. Collaboration and involvement with other components of the school outside the classroom leads to an increase in job satisfaction on the behalf of teachers. Jennifer Waddell, professor at the University of Missouri, states that, “Teachers highlighted both the personal and professional nature of the relationships, often commenting that the coworkers were their source of energy and strength as they met the challenges of teaching in urban environments. The teachers commented that their fellow teachers helped them experience a sense of belonging, ownership, and satisfaction in their jobs, even when district mandates and bureaucratic pressures were mounting” (Waddell, 2010). This feeling of satisfaction impacts teacher’s behavior in the classroom and leads to a higher retention of
Teacher turnover and students’ performance are the two main issues in the United States. The studies show that the American education spends more than a billion dollars to provide the value, quality and excellence for teachers in education. The reasons for teacher’s leaving the school it might be in the school district, funding, school condition in the area and the leadership system (Love & Kristina’s). The teachers turnover can effect on students’ performance or change their achievement includes the student 's goal. To decrease this issue, the suggestion depends on the compositional relationship between the teachers and principal, teachers with other school staff and teacher with students. According to Guin (2004) studied in the urban district, he did the research in 66 elementary schools to know the nature of the relationships between students’ performance and teacher turnover. He realized that the rate of students following the standards estimates in reading and math. The average in cons and pros, that schools with a low level in student’s achievement and performance have a high teacher turnover. The National Center for Education Statistics’ between the 2000 and 2004 school years, it was the most recent years for which is 84.9 % of teachers stay teach at the same school ,7.7% move to a different school, and 7.4 % teachers are leaving the school.
In the first year of teaching, four out of ten teachers quit. An educators job is not a walk in the park. In Kansas, we are facing a shortage of teachers. The most areas that are facing these shortages are Special Education, Adaptive and Functional Special Education, Early Childhood Handicapped, and hearing and visual impaired. It has been reported that Fewer students have chosen to major in education. There are many reasons that are causing the shortages, lack of