Hiv Essay

Decent Essays

In the 1980s, the incidence of acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS) cases caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rose to epidemic proportions in the US LGBT community predominantly due to their manifestation as Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS), a viral mediated cancer (Haverkos & Curran, 1982). A major outcome out of the research on HIV-AIDS is the finding that the virus caused massive systemic immune suppression in the infected individuals, which in turn caused the patients to succumb to either opportunistic infections such as KS (Haverkos & Curran, 1982). However, HIV-induced KS also highlighted the dominant role of the human immune system to seek and destroy any cancer that could have been formed otherwise. It also implicated that there …show more content…

The human relevance of these studies was clearly observable in immunosuppressed HIV-1+ AIDS patients (Haverkos & Curran, 1982), and transplant patients, with both groups being susceptible to higher incidence of many different cancers (Gatti & Good, 1971; Penn & Staezl, 1972). Synthesizing all these results, Robert Schreiber and colleagues proposed “cancer immunoediting”; the idea that in immunocompetent individuals, tumor evolution is sculpted by the host immune response, giving rise to tumors that are heavily resistant to immune targeting (Dunn et al., 2002). Cancer immunoediting involves three major phases; 1) Elimination 2) Equilibrium and 3) Escape (Dunn et al., 2002). In the early elimination phase, tumors are immunogenic and are susceptible to host adaptive immune response. The coordinated innate and adaptive response is in part due to tumor intrinsic genomic instability and other hallmarks of the tumor (Dunn et al., 2002). In this phase, the tumors also express tumor-specific/associated antigens, or tumor- specific neoepitopes that are derived from the antigen presentation of non-synonymous mutations on HLA class I molecules. Tumors in this phase can also be susceptible to CD4+ T-cells if theyare antigenically processed and presented by APCs, NK cells if they lack antigen presentation, and other various different types of immune-mediated cell death (Dunn et al., 2002). Thus, the elimination phase is a direct consequence of the immune

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