Atopy can be defined as the genetic tendency of an individual to develop allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis. It is also known as a hypersensitivity disorder or an exaggerated immune reaction to a foreign antigen. It is associated with a heightened immune response by the body to common allergens which may be inhaled, contact or food allergens (Medicine net, 2016). Atopy also involves the capacity to produce immunoglobulin E (IgE) in response to common environmental proteins, resulting in an IgE mediated allergy (Medscape, 2017). As in the case study, an IgE- mediated allergy to finned fish and crustaceans was established.
The earliest symptomatic presentations were itchiness, redness and swelling of …show more content…
Inhalation of the seafood-aerosols resulted in the asthma symptoms. Inhalation is also a common route of entry for allergens into the systemic circulation.
Also, the constant skin contact with native fish and crustaceans for about 10years while working as a truck driver was another predisposing factor. The longer the exposure time of the substance on the surface of the body, the higher the dermal absorption of substances into the body (Mehta, 2004).
Another exposure factor is that the sensitization by the worker was facilitated by the wet and cold conditions of the work environment (irritative factors). Increase in the water content and temperature of the skin increases the rate and extent of dermal absorption of substances. A rise in the temperature of the skin results in vasodilation which allows for the passage of more blood in the dermal layers of the skin resulting in an increase in the transport via diffusion of harmful materials into the body (Shier, Butler, & Lewis, 2014, p. 136). When the integrity of the skin surface is compromised or damaged by temperature trauma resulting from wet and cold conditions of the sea-food products, scrapes, cuts or bruises due to lack of hand gloves; its ability to serve as an effective protective layer is affected (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2013).
Therefore, the lower the integrity of the skin, the higher the permeability and extent of dermal absorption of substances from the skin surface
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Healthy and functioning skin barrier is important protector against dehydration, penetration of various microorganisms, allergens, irritants, reactive oxygen species and radiation. The skin barrier may be specifically adjusted to allow penetration. For this reason daily skin care may increase skin regeneration, elasticity, smoothness, and thus temporarily change the skin condition.
Rashes of sickness like the ones we’ve seen this summer really speak to the importance of handwashing and diligent adherence to health codes when you work in the food industry--but it’s possible that some things slip through the cracks.
This then leads to disrupted skin permeability and hyperkeratosis (overproduction of skin cells) as the body tries to compensate for the lack of lipids in the skin.
In addition, asthma affects the smooth muscle walls and glands of the bronchioles, due to narrowing of the bronchial passageway, this results in a build-up of mucus in the bronchial tubes leading to difficulty breathing (Rizzo 2016, p.423). Airflow in the alveoli becomes limited due to inflammation causing bronchoconstriction, as the inflammatory process begins mast cells degranulate and release inflammatory mediators (Kaufman 2012, pp.589-590). ‘The inflammatory process results in vascular congestion, production of thick mucus, bronchial muscle spasm and thickening of the airway walls’ resulting in Jessica becoming short of breath and coughing (Kaufman 2012, pp.589-590). Typically, this reaction occurs 30 to 60 minutes after being exposed to the triggering allergen or irritant (Kaufman 2012, pp.589-590). Asthma can be triggered by a range of different factors including exercise, infection, exposure to allergens or airborne substances such as dust, fumes or pollen (Rizzo 2016, p.843). However, some asthma attacks may be worse than others, this is because a severe asthma attack can completely narrow and close the airway (Lew 2011, pp.43-45). This can result in oxygen not getting to vital organs such as the heart or brain and can result in
Atopy is defined as an inherited tendency to produce immunoglobulin E antibodies in response to common environmental proteins such as pollen, house dust mites, and food allergens. Atopic dermatitis affects about one-fifth of all individuals during their lifetime, but the prevalence varies throughout the world. Around 50 percent of patients with atopic dermatitis will develop symptoms within their first year of life, and probably 95 percent experience an onset below five years of age. A child with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis have 50 percent of risk of developing asthma and 75 percent of risk of developing hay fever. A typical patient with atopic dermatitis will present with an early onset of itchy eczema localized at sites such as the flexures of the elbows and knees. The skin lesion in atopic dermatitis is not differ from other eczemas such as contact eczema. In its acute form, eczema is characterized by a lively red infiltrate with edema, vesicles, oozing, and crusting. Whereas in the subacute and chronic form, lichenification, excoriations, papules, and nodules are noted (Thomsen,
“The immune system didn’t evolve for allergy. Why in a hundred billion years of evolution would we evolve a response for allergy?”(Joel Weinstock). Throughout the years, food allergies have been on a dramatic increase in the United States. Allergic reactions are caused by antibodies in the immune system which are also known as immunoglobulins. There are five types of immunoglobulins that are produced to fight antigens, such as, bacteria, toxins, viruses, animal dander, fungus, and cancer cells . Each immunoglobulin fights a different antigen and is found in different parts of the human body. Immunoglobulins help the immune system when an allergen has entered the human body, each of these antibody releases a chemical called histamine, which is produced by the immune system to protect the human body. Histamine is one of the main reasons why allergy symptoms are triggered. Food allergens can cause severe or mild reactions due to an unusual mistake the immune system can make. The immune system usually mistakens a particular substance to be physically harming the human body and in the act to try and protect itself, it releases histamine. There are many reasons why food allergies occur, such as processed foods, genetically engineered proteins in foods, pesticides, and genetically modified organisms can all cause serious food allergies. It all began in 1996 when Genetically Modified Organisms were introduced to our foods. Genetically Modified Organisms are organisms that have been
→Long term of exposure to dust and chemicals can be a form of irritant to the lungs.
There are three main players in the development of allergies: immunoglobulin E (IgE), mast cells and histamine. IgE is a specific type of antibody that has a significant role in the development of allergies; IgE is able to bind to both allergens and to mast cells, cells that mediate inflammatory responses such as hypersensitivity and allergic reactions (3). Once IgE binds to an allergen, the allergen releases T cells to stimulate B cells, developing into plasma cells that produce and release more antibodies (4). Once
Skin and its derivatives make up the integumentary system which acts as a barrier between the body and the outside world. Skin has physical, mechanical, chemical, and immunologic components which allow for body temperature regulation, protection against pathogens, cutaneous sensation, and metabolic functions. When the structural integrity of skin is compromised, its functions are impaired leading to major disability or even death.
Imagine a family eating dinner in a restaurant on Sunday afternoon. Everyone is laughing and celebrating a birthday together. Both parents and children are enjoying the beautiful weather and the day off school. The merriment continues until the mother glances over to see her seven year old clawing at his throat, struggling to breathe. His face is flushed with fear and hives, his tongue is swollen, and his attempted respirations are difficult (Mayo Clinic Staff np). He can't talk, and he obviously needs immediate medical attention. The mother recognizes this as anaphylaxis; the child has severe shell fish allergies. Someone in the kitchen must have allowed his food to come in contact with the allergen.
Irritant-induced asthma is described as asthma that is caused by exposure to more than one agent that could result to respiratory irritants when inhaled. It can occur during work or outside the workplace i.e. occur in an indoor and outdoor environment (Tarlo, 2013:1). There are currently no clinical diagnostic criteria that allow the acknowledgment of new-onset-asthma to low irritant exposure in each individual patient in the workplace. The recent publication thus suggest reconsideration of the role of irritants causing asthma, to include not only the very high exposures previously recognized to be able to cause asthma in a subset of exposed workers, likely from acute inflammatory responses, but also more chronic, lower exposures that may cause
A shellfish allergy is an allergic reaction caused by contact with or consumption of shellfish. An allergic reaction to shellfish can range from mildly uncomfortable to life threatening and while some food allergies diminish or go away with age a shellfish allergy is typically a lifelong allergy that can affect multiple aspects of the allergy sufferer’s