Jessica White Asthma Paper

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This paper will discuss and explore five-year-old Jessica White, who presented to the emergency department suffering from asthma (School of Nursing & Midwifery 2014). Firstly, this paper will scope the normal pathophysiology of the respiratory system and then discuss the abnormalities in relation to Jessica’s respiratory system and the reasoning behind her asthma due to being exposed to a certain trigger. In addition, it will discuss the pharmacology in relation to two medications in which Jessica has been prescribed, and how these medications will provide relief for Jessica and improve her asthma. Lastly, this paper will explore the signs and symptoms of asthma that Jessica presented with at the hospital and how they are associated with asthma.…show more content…
In addition, asthma affects the smooth muscle walls and glands of the bronchioles, due to narrowing of the bronchial passageway, this results in a build-up of mucus in the bronchial tubes leading to difficulty breathing (Rizzo 2016, p.423). Airflow in the alveoli becomes limited due to inflammation causing bronchoconstriction, as the inflammatory process begins mast cells degranulate and release inflammatory mediators (Kaufman 2012, pp.589-590). ‘The inflammatory process results in vascular congestion, production of thick mucus, bronchial muscle spasm and thickening of the airway walls’ resulting in Jessica becoming short of breath and coughing (Kaufman 2012, pp.589-590). Typically, this reaction occurs 30 to 60 minutes after being exposed to the triggering allergen or irritant (Kaufman 2012, pp.589-590). Asthma can be triggered by a range of different factors including exercise, infection, exposure to allergens or airborne substances such as dust, fumes or pollen (Rizzo 2016, p.843). However, some asthma attacks may be worse than others, this is because a severe asthma attack can completely narrow and close the airway (Lew 2011, pp.43-45). This can result in oxygen not getting to vital organs such as the heart or brain and can result in…show more content…
These medications are essential in ensuring that Jessica recovers and does not have another asthma attack. This is because orally Prednisolone is an effective treatment of asthma, as it is absorbed quickly and efficiently (Chung et al. 2011, p.240). Prednisolone a corticosteroid is effective in asthma treatment due to the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects (“Prednisolone/prednisone”, 2017). This form of medication is effective to Jessica because she has been exposed to lots of histamines due to being exposed to an asthma trigger, because of this corticosteroid suppress the inflammatory response leading to a decrease in mucus production and narrowing of Jessica’s airways (“Corticosteroids”, 2017). However, Prednisolone is an effective treatment for Jessica in the short term, it may negatively affect her if taken for a long period (“Prednisolone/prednisone”, 2017). This is because Prednisolone has ‘potential serious adverse reactions such as weight change, growth retardation, osteoporosis and adrenal suppression’ (“Prednisolone”, 2011). Prednisolone is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and metabolised in the liver, and excreted in the urine (“Prednisolone”, 2011). In addition, Prednisolone often reaches its peak plasma concentrations one to two hours
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