Robert M. Carton
Principles of Accident Causation
March 12, 2017
1. How do airspeed indicators and altimeters work?
Both airspeed indicators and altimeters are relatively similar to one another. The airspeed indicator utilizes and receives data from the pitot tube and the static port on an aircraft. In short the air pressure is collected by the pitot tube is compared to the static air pressure to give the pilot an accurate indication of how fast the aircraft is moving. The pitot tube has a small whole in the front and a small whole in the back. It collects ram air pressure from the small hole in the front as it moves through the air. The ram air is directed to the diaphragm (like a balloon) inside of the …show more content…
A radar altimeter uses a C band at 4.3 gigahertz. Radar altimeters are usually in uses when the aircraft is flying at low altitudes (2,500 ft. and below). The difference between the two is one uses frequencies and the other uses static air (Kirchhoff, 2011).
Turkish Airlines Flight 1951 crashed on February 25, 2009 due to a faulty radio altimeter and pilot error. The radio altimeter started producing faults during the final segment of the flight when the aircraft was roughly 2,000 feet above the ground. The captain’s altimeter instantly changed from 1950 ft. to -8 ft. Because the pilots had auto throttles engaged and the aircraft believed it was getting reading to touch down. Therefore, the auto throttles reduced power to retard mode. Retard mode is where the auto throttles automatically reduce power to the engines in preparation to touching down. The pilots noticed the auto throttles reduced power so the first officer manually increased the throttles to maintain appropriate speed to finish the final approach. However, since the first officer failed to hold the throttle lever in position the throttles automatically went back to idle speed. The aircraft stayed at idle speed (100 seconds) until 490 feet above the ground, were the stick shaker was activated indicating the aircraft was about to stall. When the stick shaker was activated the auto throttles advanced to full throttle but
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One of the most controversial and important air crash linked to human error of the modern world happened on the night of February 12, 2009. Colgan air flight 3407, operated by Continental Connection, was on final approach to runway 23 at Buffalo-Niagara International Airport as it disappeared from radar. The aircraft was a Bombardier Dash 8, a popular twin engine medium range turboprop Airliner used by many regional carriers. The aircraft entered an uncontrollable stall crashing into to a neighborhood 5 miles northeast of the airport killing all everyone on souls on board. The Captain, Marvin Resnlow and first officer Rebecca Lynne were behind the controls the night of the accident. The NTSB report determined error by both pilots cause the aircraft to crash. Thus, pilot fatigues, improper recovery form a stall were contributing factors. The victim’s family members pushed for congress to overhaul airline regulations. The NTBS investigation delivery multiple findings that eventually led to a modernization of airline operations and pilot training.
On this case it will be discussed the aircraft accident of American Airlines Flight 587. The aircraft involved was an Airbus 300-605R with a registration N14053 that occurred on November 12, 2001 in Belle Harbor, New York claimed the lives of 265 people, which consisted of all the members on board, the flight crew and 5 members in the ground. The aircraft was scheduled to depart from John F. Kennedy International Airport, Jamaica, New York to Las Americas International Airport, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic operating under the provisions of the CRF 14 Part 121 with an instrument flight rules flight plan.
Contributing to the cause of the accident was the Cherokee pilot’s interrupted radio transmission, which led to the Beech 1900C pilots’ misunderstanding of the transmission as an indication from the King Air that it would not take off until after flight 5925 had cleared the runway. Contributing to the severity of the accident and the loss of life was the
Just moments after being given instructions to climb to a higher altitude “the captain stated, ‘Look at that crazy fuel flow indicator their on number four, see that?’” (TWA flight crash). Afterwards, in an investigation lead by the Nation Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) they concluded that the cause of the crash was due to the combustion of the mixture of air and fuel in the “center wing fuel tank” (TWA flight crash). It is no wonder why many people believe the cause of the crash was a fuel tank explosion. Later, the NTSB claimed that two worn down wires must have sparked in the fuel tank, exploding the whole plane (Cole 36). The NTSB also that the flammability in the central wing fuel tank, due to the hazardous mixture of air and fuel, was too high (TWA Flight 800). Based on the various tests and investigations of the crash, mechanical failure has remained one of the most accepted theories of the flight’s
On September 19, 2008 at 11:53 pm eastern standard daylight time, a chartered Bombardier Learjet Model 60, N999LJ, owned by Inter Travel and Services, Inc., and operated by Global Exec Aviation, overran runway 11 during a RTO at Columbia Metropolitan Airport, Columbia, South Carolina. The aircraft crashed and burned after the crew was unable to stop the aircraft before departing the runway. The captain, the first officer, and two passengers were killed; two other passengers were seriously injured. The chartered passenger flight was headed to Van Nuys, California. The flight was ready for departure just prior to midnight. After analysis of the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) transcript, it was revealed that the flight crew received clearance instructions from the CAE ground controller to taxi from the northeast fixed-base operator’s (FBO) parking ramp to runway 11. After a short conversation with the first officer about which way to turn, the captain, who was the pilot flying, turned the aircraft left onto taxiway U. The controller provided a corrected taxi clearance after detecting
“Imagine the scene in the cockpit. The plan is dangerously low on fuel. They have just blown their first shot at a landing. They have no idea how much longer the plane is capable of flying. The captain is desperate: “Tell them we are in an emergency!” And what does Klotz say? That’s right to one-eight-zero on the heading and, ah, we’ll try once again. We’re running out of fuel.” (193)
When a plane went down before the mid 1994’s, the crew would face far worse. The rescue system had not yet been renovated or structured, meaning many of the searches were disordered. The chances of becoming rescued were very low. The rate of unintentional crashes were increasing, and with the implausibility of rescue, it resulted in a very bad balance. This occurred particularly during the first years of the war. If a plane did happen to go down, the crew members were not very likely to survive. For example, crews making an effort at rescues crashed while trying to find another plane and its crew that had crashed before. It would seem likely that for every stranded crewman found, a number of others went down and died, too. While struggling to save a man and help him live on, the odds are that the plane may not survive as well.
On Saturday, August twenty-second, a stunt plane at an air show in England crashed and killed seven people. It was said that the pilot of the stunt plane was attempting to do a loop, but lost control and crashed onto a highway. The seven people that were killed in this accident were people just driving on highway and were caught in the accident. The plane model that crashed was called a “Hawker Hunter”, and it was a plane model from the Cold War. Along with the seven people that were killed in the accident, there are around fourteen people that were injured.
When the tail engine exploded, many people thought a bomb had gone off somewhere on the jet because the noise was so loud (Flight 232, 8). The burst sent debris flying everywhere and some pieces of metal hit the jet’s hydraulic lines (Flight 232, 2). The hydraulics failed, which shut off all of the controls, making the jet especially hard to steer. The jet was disabled for about 45 minutes (Jet Carrying…, 1). Dennis Fitch was called to the cockpit during that time to try and help the pilots control the jet. They ended up using the throttles as controls, which was very hard to do. “None of us knew what to do,” Captain Haynes said. “We were all making suggestions. It was the crew working together.” (20 Years Ago…, 4) At first, the men from the Minneapolis Airport (MSP) were communicating by the Air Traffic Control (ACT) with the pilots. They told the pilots which airports were close and where they could land. At first, they suggested the Des Moines Airport, but it was too far away and the pilots did not think that the jet would make it there. Then, they suggested the Sioux City airport, and the pilots thought they could make it there. The men from the Air Traffic Control Center also helped whenever the pilots had a question about where they were or how many miles they were from the airport. The men would respond as quickly as they could, telling the pilots all of the information that they had (The Crash
The amount of times the cups spins is the speed it is going. The anemometer gives out the speed in feet per a minute. Meteorologist use the anemometer to tell whether patterns.(crutchfield) They also use it to measure the jet stream.there is a lot of people that use the anemometer .Not just meteorologist use the anemometers they make it for your phone too.
RADAR stands for RAdio, Detecting And Range, it main is used for the detecting objects by bouncing radio waves off of them and seeing how long it takes for the echo to return. It was developed by a number of nations secretly, but the term RADAR wasn’t used until 1940.
We were the second aircraft of a flight of two. During the first attempt at landing both aircraft browned out and had to do a go around. During are second attempt the first aircraft was able to land successfully. Mark and I were unable to, because of all the duty that the lead aircraft had stirred up. We had to do a second go around. We decided to land in front of the other aircraft, because dust was still in the air. While we were setting up to do a vertical descent to land straight down we forgot to engage the vertical altitude hold function the maintains a constant altitude while coming to a hover. We were at 175' above ground level (AGL) and already in a dusty cloud with zero visibility. Before we realized it we were descending at a rate of 700 feet per minute. Mark finally noticed the descent at 10'AGL and was able to pull in power to stop it just a few feet above the ground. We over torqued the aircraft as we continued a vertical climb in a dust cloud to finally break clear at around 200'AGL. We ended up doing a third go around to make a safe landing to pick up the Soldiers. Now anytime I hear similar stories about aircraft crashes or near misses I get a queasy feeling in my
In February of 2009, Colgan Air flight 3407 crashed while on approach killing forty-nine people on board as well as one on the ground according to the official National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Accident Report (2010). In February of 2008, go! flight 1002 ignored several radio calls after departure and eventually flew past its destination and continued over open water according to the NTSB’s Report (2009). In April of 2007, Pinnacle Airlines flight 4712 overran the runway after landing at its destination airport. According to the NTSB’s official Accident Report (2008), there were no injuries. The incidents and accidents listed above all have one common factor: fatigue. Fatigue was shown to have played some role in Colgan 3407, go! 1002, and Pinnacle 4712.
March 3, 1974 a catastrophe occurred outside of Paris. Turkish Airlines flight 981 out of Paris experienced a chain reaction of unfortunate events, that lead to the eventual crash of the plane, and the complete fatality of every passenger on board the plane. The DC-10 aircraft, designed by the plane company McDonnell-Douglas, crashed in a forest 10 minutes after taking off from Paris. People who have analyzed this accident, have looked into what caused this plane to crash and take the life of all 346 passengers on board? Among the analysts are three different types of accident theories that try to explain why the plane crashed and how the crash could have been avoided and spared the life of hundreds.