How Morphine Controls Acute Pain

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Question iii. Discuss how morphine controls acute pain

Acute Pain is detected by nociceptors which transmit electrical signals through the A-delta and C-fibres to the central nervous system from the pituitary gland (Steeds, 2013). In response to the signals from the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland synthesises beta-endorphins which bind to the mu receptors at the openings of the synaptic nerve terminals (Sprouse-Blum, Smith, Sugai & Parsa, 2010). Morphine is commonly used in the treatment and prevention of sever acute pain. To be an effective pain relief it must be absorbed into the bloodstream. If taken orally, the short lived drug has to make its way through various layers of mucus in the gastrointestinal tract before it eventually
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Women who suffer endometriosis often undergo conservative surgery such as a laparoscopy or laparotomy in an effort to remove the endometriosis without damaging normal tissue and the reproductive organs ( Hogg & Vyas, 2015.) A laparoscopy allows surgeons to examine the pelvis, abdomen and organs through a small incision usually near the navel ( The Royal Australian And New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 2006) In an effort to create more space to work in, the surgeon expand the abdomen cavity using carbon dioxide gas which is inserted through a needle. The needle is then replaced by the laparoscope for the doctor to examine the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and other organs (The Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 2006). Using the small incisions created in the patients’ abdomen, the doctor will insert surgical instruments and begin to cut and remove damaged tissue. Once the endometrial tissue is removed, the doctor will remove the instruments and put a single stich in the incision (The Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 2006) A successful laparoscopy manages chronic pelvic pain by delaying or stopping the progress of endometriosis (The Australian and New Zeeland College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 2006). Alternatively, the surgeon may decide to perform a

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