1.1 Problem Statement
The goal of this paper is to describe and analyze how trade agreements and sugar imports affect the U.S. sugar market and program.
1.2 Background With the U.S. generating domestic sugar from both the sugarcane and sugar beet industries, the U.S. is among the world 's largest sugar producers and generated over $4 billion in cash receipts in 2015-2016 (U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Service (ERS), 2017A). Sugar beets account for 55 percent of production, sugarcane produces 45 percent of the total domestic sugar production (USDA ERS, 2017A). A rotational crop, sugar beets can withstand a variety of climates. Poised to continue as the largest domestic sugar source, beet sugar harvesting and …show more content…
Section 3 describes the method and data used to determine impact of trade agreement on the U.S. sugar program. Lastly, section 4 will discuss the conclusions and offers recommendations for future study.
2. Conceptual Framework As aforementioned, the U.S. sugar production is large, and in spite this, sugar imported under trade agreements affect the domestic market. Consequently, to understand the U.S. sugar market, a dive into U.S. production supply and trade agreement obligations is required to understand how these elements support the U.S. sugar program. Corresponding to domestic demand, the U.S. sugar market constraints the amount of domestic cane sugar and beet sugar produced to not exceed 85% of the estimated U.S. demand (McMinimy, 2016). In addition to four smaller trade agreements with nine countries, a larger part of the unfilled U.S. consumption demand comes from importation under WTO and NAFTA allocations (McMinimy, 2016; USDA FAS, 2017). Based on patterns from the unrestricted free trade period of 1975-1981, the U.S. Trade Representative allocates a WTO tariff rate quota (TRQ) allocation with 40 countries and the USDA executes the sugar program each FY, beginning October 1 each year (USDA ERS, 2017B). The TRQ system applies to imports of raw cane sugar, refined sugar, sugar syrups, specialty sugars and
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
Making sugar as it was discovered in the 17th century was a hard process. That is why it was believed to be an investment during this time. The sugar had to be boiled 3-4 times before the process was over, and the water was removed. What drove the sugar trade was the demand as it became such a huge stimulant. Everyone wanted it, and that's why people spent all their time growing it across the sea.
The demand in Britain was key to the sugar trade as the high demand for sugar caused people to spend money on the sugar businesses, allowing the businesses to grow and expand. For example, document five shows how desperately the British
In conclusion, The sugar trade was most successful due to the high consumer demand and the slave trade. This is shown by the evidence of sugar’s addictive properties and its easy use as a sweetener with certain goods. However sugar does have its health and slavery issues, not allowing Africans and other slaves to live they life they
It was the largest producer of sugar, and also the most valuable sugar producing colony, with much as eighty-eight thousand tons of sugar were being processed annually. In addition to the massive amounts of sugar being produced in Haiti, it was also a large producer of a variety of other commodities, one of which being coffee which it produced about thirty-seven thousand tons annually. Even further, the commodities that were being exported from Haiti totalled approximately one third of France’s external commerce. Moreover, a tremendous amount of the sugar that was being consumed in France came from Haiti. However, it was not exclusively France who was indulging on the commodities being produced and exported here, as the United States had participated as well. As a matter of fact, about all of the sugar and other commodities, such as molasses, that was being consumed in the United States had been imported from Haiti. The mass production of all the commodities did not happen by itself, but rather it happened due to the intensive labour of the slave population.
Sugar is everywhere in our lives. When you eat, sugar is in the food such as hamburger, sandwiches, pizza, bread, etc. When you drink, sugar is in the beverage like soda, juice, coffee and even milk. Furthermore, sugar exists in snacks such as cookies, cupcakes, biscuits and so on. I cannot list everything with sugar here. Actually, when we eat, we eat sugar. Unfortunately, sugar is now considering a toxic to our bodies. It causes diseases like obesity, diabetes, heart attack and cancer, etc. As sugar threatens the public health, government is considering curb sugar consumption by taxes on sugar; restrictions placed on food production and even age requirements on purchasing sugary foods. For this research project, I decided to pursue the question, Should sugar be regulated? This question deserves to be examined because we need to make some change for life to reduce sugar intake but at the same time it’s controversial that whether the government should intervene and regulate sugar. I wonder how the government will take appropriate measures to regulate sugar as well as improve public health.
The British had many territories under their control with the qualities to grow sugar. In document 1 it shows that there are roughly 14 territories that were under British control. Also in document 2 it shows the ideal climates for the production of sugar and Jamaica and Barbados which are two of the 14 territories under the British control show that those territories have the perfect climate to grow sugar. The evidence provided is proof that since the British had so many territories with the qualities to grow sugar could have helped contribute to the reason the sugar trade was made.
The Sugar Act of 1764 was intended to eliminate the illegal sugar trade that took place between the British colonies and the French and Spanish colonies. Nevertheless, it also had the effect of lowering duties on molasses, which reduced the economic value of sugar grown within the colonies. The act also included
Sugar has been a staple in the diets of Europeans for centuries. From desserts to tea, sugar has been added to everything. While it is unhealthy in large doses, the demand for the saccharide does not falter. Before sugar could be mass produced by machines, much of the labor was done by slaves. While this benefitted white Europeans, they were the only ones to have profited from this new sugar craze. The African population suffered immensely from the sugar industry as the working conditions of sugar plantations were brutal and they had no civil rights as slaves.
The United States embargo of Cuba has its roots planted in 1960, 53 years ago, when “the United States Congress authorized President Eisenhower to cut off the yearly quota of sugar to be imported from Cuba under the Sugar act of 1948… by 95 percent” (Hass 1998, 37). This was done in response to a growing
When most people think about sugar, their first thoughts are not: heart disease, addiction, or slow and painful death; yet, unfortunately, these conditions are very real consequences of the unregulated and excessive consumption of sugar. In Nature’s article, “The Toxic Truth About Sugar” (2012), Robert Lustig, pediatric endocrinologist; Laura Schmidt, Professor of Health Policy at UCSF; and Claire Brindis, Professor of Pediatrics and Health Policy at UCSF, evaluate the world’s ever-increasing and toxic struggle with the substance sugar – also discussing counter measures to promote healthier diets amongst American’s and other societies. Lustig and his colleagues develop their argument using statistical evidence as they address the global impact of sugar, refuting minor oppositions, before dissecting each harmful aspect of the substance – even comparing it to substances more known for their toxicity. Eventually, presenting readers with possible routes of regulation, the authors firmly suggest government intervention in the production and sale of sugary foods. Although the argument is well executed, I remain unconvinced that government intervention is actually necessary.
In addition, Mintz mentions the separation of the production from consumption. The Major consumers of sugar were not the hard workers on the plantation, but the far removed citizens of England. The plantation workers were not able to profit from the fruit of
By then, sugar and consumer items like it had become too important to permit an archaic protectionism to jeopardize future metropolitan supplies. Sugar surrendered its place as luxury and rarity and became the first mass-produced exotic necessity of a proletarian working class.
&#9;Sweetness and Power is a historical study of sugar and its affect on society and economy since it was first discovered. Sugar has had a large impact on society and the economy that is not noticeable unless thoroughly studied. The following is an analysis of the work done by Sidney W. Mintz in his attempt to enlighten the &quot;educated layperson&quot;.