A condition affiliated with excessive fluid in the brain.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
The fluid in the brain (cerebrospinal fluid or CSF) is formed in the brain. CSF usually circulates through parts of the brain, its covering, and the spinal canal, and is then absorbed into the circulatory system.
When the circulation or absorption of this fluid is blocked, or excessive fluid is produced, the volume of fluid in the brain becomes higher than normal. The accumulation of fluid puts pressure on the brain forcing it against the skull and damaging or destroying the tissues.
Symptoms vary depending on the cause of the obstruction to CSF circulation, the age at which the problem develops, and the extent …show more content…
Hydrocephalus most often occurs in children, but may also occur in adults and the elderly.
Protect the head of an infant/child from injury by handling the child carefully. Prompt treatment of infections (such as meningitis) and other disorders associated with hydrocephalus may reduce the risk of developing the disorder.
EARLY SYMPTOMS, IN INFANTS
* enlargement of the head (see increased head circumference)
* bulging fontanelles (soft spots of the head) with or without enlargement of the head size
* sutures - separated
SYMPTOMS OF CONTINUED HYDROCEPHALUS
* irritability, poor temper control
* muscle spasticity (spasm
* decreased mental function
* delayed development
* decreased movement
* slow or restricted movement
* difficulty feeding
* lethargy, excessive sleepiness
* urinary incontinence (loss of control over bladder)
* brief, shrill, high-pitched cry
* slow growth (child 0-5 years)
IN OLDER INFANTS AND CHILDREN
Symptoms vary depending on the amount of damage caused by pressure in the brain. Symptoms may be similar to symptoms of progression of hydrocephalus in children, or may include the following or other symptoms:
* vision changes
* crossed eyes
* uncontrolled eye movements
* loss of coordination
* poor gait (walking pattern)
* mental aberrations (such as confusion or psychosis)
Signs and Tests
Tapping with the fingertips
The sudden movement of brain inside the skull causes the brain to swell. This sudden movement of the brain causes the brain cells to stretch and tear, damaging the cells and creating chemical changes within the brain. It may not be obvious to parents, coaches, trainers and
The brain is a fragile organ. It is cushioned by cerebrospinal fluid that acts as a shock absorber for minor impacts (Sports Concussion Institute). A concussion is caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head. These types of impacts are usually received during a sport, car accident, fall, etc. Cerebrospinal fluid is not enough to protect the brain.
A concussion is when there’s an impact to the head and the brain impacts the skull. People can obtain a concussion from a hit to the body. While, most people believe that the brain is attached to the spine, the brain actually floats in spinal fluid. This
injuries. This disease can cause parts of the brain to degenerate, or it can build up an
When admitted, person suffering from a concussion may appear dazed or stunned, confused, answer questions slowly, repeat questions, and be unable to remember current events (Borich, 2013). Other physical symptoms may include headache, nausea, vomiting, balance problems, dizziness, visual problems including double vision and sensitivity to light, fatigue, numbness or tingling,
The nervous system and the endocrine system regulate all body functions (class notes). But, certain diseases and disorders can affect any of these organ systems. One disorder that can affect the brain is a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), also referred to as a stroke. CVA usually results from either a blood vessel in the brain that has burst and decreased the flow of blood to a specific area of the brain or a blood clot that blocks the flow of blood to specific areas of the brain. Either of these causes can result in the brain tissue being deprived of nutrients and oxygen, which will make the brain tissue die (class notes). The following features a study on the association between Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pnuemoniae) and cerebrovascular accidents.
For example, if the patient’s trachea has been crushed, the treatment would be to make sure a patent airway is regained. After the initial cause has been addressed, the resulting symptoms will be addressed such as prescribing anti-seizure medications for any seizure activity, providing barbiturates to slow brain activity which gives the brain time to heal, and keeping the environment cool to prevent further brain damage. Rehabilitation options are also available if complete brain death has not occurred and include speech, physical, occupational, and recreational therapies. The nursing assessments and plan of care are once again going to depend largely on the symptoms of the brain injury and will need to be individualized. (Anoxic Brain Injury,
Background Aqueductal stenosis is a known cause of hydrocephalus. The scope of this paper is to highlight the disease burden of hydrocephalus attributed to aqueductal stenosis which still remains unknown in our setting. Materials and Methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 258 records of patients diagnosed with hydrocephalus were analyzed after ethical approval from KNH-UON ethics and research committee. Patients with a diagnosis of hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis were included in this study. Patients age, sex, mode of delivery, associated comorbidities, presenting complaints, neurosurgical intervention performed, Kafarnosky score were recorded. Data were divided into 2 sets based on the patient’s age i.e. whether < 1 year or > 12 years. Data were recorded on google data collection form and analyzed using Google spreadsheets.Results: Out of 258 cases of hydrocephalus, 52 had aqueductal stenosis. Male to female sex ratio for this condition was 3:2. There were 25 cases < 1year and 27 cases > 12 years old who were diagnosed with hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis. Associated conditions were bilateral congenital talipes equinovarus, spina bifida, Arnold Chairi malformations, meningitis and HIV. The presenting complaints differed according to the age groups. Neurosurgical interventions included ETV in 21 cases, insertion of VP shunt and ETV were done in 3 cases
Treatment for hydrocephalus requires surgical intervention where a ventricular shunt is created which reduces the ICP when it gets too high. If patients are untreated, 50% will die before the age of three years with only 20% reaching adult
Tight junctions seal together the enclothelial cells of brain capillaries, which also are surrounded by a thick basement membrain. The process of many astrocyties pressing up against the capillaries is known as the Astrocyties Process. This process selectively passes some substances from the blood to the neurons, at the same time, inhibiting the passage of others.
The brain is permeated by a vast network of tiny blood vessels called capillaries- so tiny and thin that blood cells have to pass through in single file. In the brain alone there are enough capillaries that if you laid them all out end to end they would stretch from Tucson to Tijuana.