Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, has become a major risk factor for several types of heart disease across the globe. In the United States alone, nearly 70 million adults have been diagnosed with this condition . Hypertension is a condition in which arterial walls experience extreme force from blood flowing through; long-term force against artery walls will lead to more serious health problems such as stroke, renal failure, and other cardiovascular diseases . If the proper steps to treat hypertension are not taken, patients have a high risk of developing atherosclerosis, a condition that causes arteries to harden significantly. Smoking, obesity, lack of physical activity, high alcohol consumption, and high sodium intake are factors that may cause an individual to be diagnosed with hypertension  Detection of hypertension is crucial in order to reduce the incidence of death by cardiovascular disease .
Sodium recommendations are set low enough to protect against high blood pressure, but high enough to allow adequate intake of other nutrients with a typical diet (Page. 379). The recommended adequate intake (AI) for sodium for someone my age and sex is 1500 mg a day (Page. 379). On day 1 of my 3 day analysis I consumed 1507.83 mg of sodium. On day 2 I consumed 1627.11 mg, and on day 3 I consumed 1632.12 mg of sodium. Summarily, during my three day analysis I was well with range of the recommended AI for sodium consumption.
The average American consumes more than double the daily recommendation of sodium. These levels are above the upper limit that is considered to have no adverse effects on our bodies. The CDC lists heart disease as the most common cause of death for Americans, as well as kidney disease at number nine on the top ten causes of death. These are conditions that can be exacerbated by high sodium levels. Not only that, but high blood pressure affects nearly 1/3 of Americans and chronic kidney disease effects about 10% of the population. These are conditions in which reduced sodium in take could be very therapeutic. Especially considering that these very common medical conditions cost many billions of dollars a year to treat. Tenapanor has been developed to help meet the needs of those who need to reduce their sodium intake.
Salt is thought to be responsible to speed up the body’s loss of calcium. Australian adults are recommended to consume less than 4g to 6g of salt. This is equivalent to one teaspoon a day.
Some ethnicities and cultures are more predisposed and at a higher risk related to a high sodium, a fatty diet that can increase their blood pressure with just a small amount of salt. Monitoring their diet and minimizing the amount of salt on their foods can help them lower the risk of HTN and cardiac disease.
Abuse of dietary sodium, potassium and alcohol have been linked to the propagation of hypertensive symptoms. Consumption of sodium chloride (NaCl), also known as table salt, has been a key player in the procurement of hypertension. (Koliaki & Katsilambros, 2013) Recommended intake designated by the Department of Health and Human Services recommends 2300mg for healthy individuals and 1500mg for individuals who are older, African American and or have hypertension, diabetes or chronic kidney disease. (Gupta, Georgiopoulou, Kalogeropoulos, Dunbar, Reilly, Sands, et. al., 2012) Sodium intake in relation to potassium intake has also been shown to have an affect on hypertension. Research conducted on hypertensive rats found evidence that supports higher levels of potassium acquired through natural food sources, contributed to lower blood pressure levels. The rats that were kept on a diet lower in potassium also exhibited higher mortality rates than their potassium pumped counterparts. (Liu, Wang, Kincaid-Smith, Witworth, et .al., 2014) Alternately, modifications to the diet and weight loss has also been shown to have a positive effect on preventing hypertension (Appel, Brands, Daniels, Karania, Elmer, et. al., 2006) Overall, the monitoring of dietary salt, potassium and weight loss or maintenance are all variables in preventing blood pressure increases and
The American Heart Association recommends aiming for a dietary pattern that achieves five percent to 6 percent of calories form saturated fat which is about thirteen grams of saturated fats a day. To get the nutrients you need you need a diet of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, poultry, fish, and nuts. Research shows that the dietary antioxidants including Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Provitamin A have contributed to the prevention of coronary heart disease. High blood pressure is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Many people are at risk for developing health problems related to salt consumption including people over age 50, people who have elevated blood pressure, people who are diabetic, and African Americans. In your body your kidneys have trouble keeping up with the excess sodium in the bloodstream. This leads to increased blood volume which means more work for the heart and more pressure on the blood vessels. Over time, this can leading to high blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke. High salt intake increases blood pressure and high potassium intake can help relax blood vessels and excrete the
According to the blood pressure in the assessment, M.K. has stage one hypertension. It was noted that she is currently being prescribed Lasix and Lotensin to help with her high blood pressure. Lotensin, also known as Benazepril, is an ACE-inhibitor, or angiotensin-coverting enzyme inhibitor. These types of drugs play an important role in the RAAS (which stands for renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system). Arterial blood pressure is regulated and accomplished through neural, hormonal, and renal interaction and is in tune with the homeostatic fluid volume of one’s body. The balance of sodium and water is performed by the kidneys and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is the main regulator of fluid volume in the body. An increase of extracellular fluid increases vascular resistance, which in turn leads to increased arterial blood pressure. The kidneys will then sense this pressure change and in order to compensate, will promote sodium and water loss through micturition. Sodium intake is directly proportional to arterial blood pressure and since the kidneys cannot get rid of sodium as fast as water, higher levels are expected. As sodium increases serum osmolality triggering the hypothalamus to act as the regulator by signaling the posterior pituitary gland to
What makes salt so interesting is not only because that it is absolutely essential to our lives, but also because it that has altered history by controlling global trades, promoting the growth of cities, and facilitating imperialism's control over the colonies. Ions from play an essential role in human body; these sodium ions are involved
Hypertension (HT), defined as a chronic elevation of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure (BP), is in all probability the most common chronic disease today. Clinically hypertension is not a disease at usual sense it is a risk factor for many future vascular diseases1,2. In human body blood pressure is maintained by several factors such as kidney, sympathetic nervous system, hormonal mechanisms along with the diet taken. These include lipids, magnesium, sodium, potassium and the total energy intake3.
After the analysis of this case study, I have chosen to perform research on the patient’s diagnoses of hypertension. Hypertension, also known as, high blood pressure, is a global problem. The desired blood pressure, according to the Joint National Committee are, below 150/90 mmHg for individuals 60 years and older, and below 140/90 mmHg for individuals under 60 years of age (Beeman, 2013, p. 334). Thus, individuals not meeting this criteria have to be treated with drug therapy. Understanding the mechanisms in which normal blood pressure is maintained, will aid in the understanding of hypertension. Systemic arterial pressure is a product of cardiac output and total peripheral vascular resistance. To maintain a balance between these factors, there are four control systems that play a role: the arterial baroreceptor system, regulation of body fluid volume, the renin angiotensin aldosterone system, and vascular autoregulation (Beeman, 2013, p. 337).
Studies have shown that a person’s sodium intake can contribute to an increase in blood pressure, which can lead to heart disease and other health complications. Over the years many investigators have continued to study the effects of sodium on the human body. African Americans living in the United States have a higher risk of having diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure and heart disease. However, not much research investigated the effects of high salt consumption on the odds of developing kidney stones in African American men. While this study will not build upon any currently published literature, it will help to create awareness of
The American Heart Association recommends that almost all Americans cut down on their intake of salt. Just one teaspoon of salt contains nearly 2,300 mg of sodium, which is half of the maximum daily intake. If this is all you take in during the day, your body will have the correct balance and your kidneys will be able to function properly. Too little sodium if and your body will not retain enough water. Too much, and your body retains water forcing your heart to work harder and driving up your blood pressure.
The two major types of hypertension are primary and secondary. Primary hypertension accounts for more than 90% of all cases and has no known cause, although it is hypothesized that genetic factors, hormonal changes, and the altercations in sympathetic tone all may play a role in its development. Secondary hypertension develops as a consequence of an underlying disease or condition. The prevention and treatment of hypertension is a major public health issue. When blood pressure is controlled, cardiovascular, renal disease, and stroke may be prevented. The JCN, reported more than 122 million individuals in American are overweight or obese, consume large amounts of dietary sodium and alcohol, and do not eat adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables; less than 20% exercise regularly. Both modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of hypertension