With an estimated population of 186.5 million (PRB 2016) and an HIV prevalence of 3.4% (FMoH 2013), HIV/AIDS continues to be a major public health concern in Nigeria. Recent estimates indicate that the annual number of new infections in the country has been on a steady decline, decreasing from 288,870 in 2009 to 220,394 in 2013 (NACA 2014). Nigeria’s epidemic is generalized, with wide variations in HIV prevalence within the country, across age groups, and population sub-groups. Across age groups, the national HIV prevalence ranges from 2.9% (15-19 years) to 4.4% (35-39 years). Geographically, the HIV prevalence is highest in the South-South zone (5.5%) and lowest in the South-East Zone (1.8%) (FMoH 2013).
A significant proportion of new …show more content…
Geographically, the HIV prevalence varied by states and ranged from 11.3% in Cross River to as high as 41.3% in Lagos (FMoH 2010a) and by age group 12.4% (15-19 years) to 32.3 (25-49 years). The vulnerability of interventions targeted at MSM is exacerbated by culture, religion, political-will (Allman , et al. 2007) and criminalization of same sex practices (Federal Republic of Nigeria 1990, National Assembly 2011) that exist and make them a hard-to-reach population. Besides, factors such as poverty, stigma and discrimination, lack of involvement of MSM in
program planning and implementation, illiteracy, lack of social support, violence indirectly contributes to HIV/AIDS transmission or prevent desired changes from occurring at the individual, structural, community, and national level (Measure Evaluation 2011). Similarly, multiple concurrent partnerships, transactional sex, lack of effective services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), poor quality of health services, and high risk sexual practices (Stromdahl, et al. 2012, UNAIDS 2011) also increase the vulnerability to HIV.
Since 2007, findings from IBBSS study sparked the interest of stakeholders on the existence of MSM and provided evidence to justify the need for the development of HIV programming for key
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There are an immense amount of problems in Africa caused by the AIDS disease. Healthcare providers are available and located all over Africa. Even though they are available, they have only “enough medicine for long-term survival available for 30,000 Africans” (Copson, 3).
Of the 35 million people living with HIV in the world, 19 million do not know their HIV-positive status. Adolescent girls and young women account for one in four new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Women are much more vulnerable to HIV, tuberculosis and hepatitis B and C than the general public. Which is supported by this excerpt from a recent AIDSTAR-One regional report “Women and girls often face discrimination in terms of access to education, employment and healthcare. In this region, men often dominate sexual relationships. As a result, women cannot always practice safer sex even when they know the risks involved. Gender-based violence has been identified as a key driver of HIV transmission in the region.” (Ellsberg, Betron 2010) Many children are affected by the disease in a number of ways: they live with sick parents and relatives in households drained of resources due to the epidemic, and those who have lost parents are less likely to go to school or continue their education. Studies in the regions of Southern Africa and South-East Asia have found HIV/AIDS to negatively impact both the demand for and supply of education. Orphaned children are either pulled out of school or not enrolled at all due to the financial constraints of
In The Invisible Cure, Helen Epstein talks about why HIV/AIDS rate is so high in Africa compared to the rest of the world. Through the book, she gives us an account of the disease and the struggles that many health experts and ordinary Africans went through to understand this disease, and how different African countries approached the same problem differently. Through this paper, I will first address the different ways Uganda and Southern African countries, South Africa and Botswana in particular, dealt with this epidemic, and then explain how we can use what we have learned from these African countries to control outbreaks of communicable disease elsewhere around the world.
The infection rates of HIV in women ages 15-24 is approximately twice as high as men in the same age group. Access to sexual and reproductive health services in Africa is restricted by the gender inequality, stigma and discrimination in the face of high HIV/AIDS prevalence. The study is limited to 2 cities, Uyo and Calabar; major centers of HIV/AIDS response. Interviews reveal that large numbers of people, especially from rural regions, are improperly informed and unaware of the nature of HIV/AIDS. An outreach program displayed HIV prevention messages, but the signs were in English. Access to ART can be difficult. Poorer women cannot afford repeat visits to clinics. Societal issues are present; HIV/AIDS stigma is widespread and families will outcast individuals, denying them of any support. The study also showed a declining confidence in ART as a form of treatment. Respondents reported cases of those on HIV/AIDS treatment who developed further infections. The article displays the need for better education and programs to help people access treatment for
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS is a pandemic problem affecting global health. At the end of 2015, 36.7 million people were living with HIV/AIDS globally. The rate of incidence is more prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa with almost 1 in every 24 adults living with HIV/AIDS. In the united states, HIV/AIDS is a diversified health problem affecting all sexes, ages and races and involving the transmission of multiple risk behavior. However, with the introduction of various prevention programs and antiretroviral drugs, the incidence of HIV/AIDS has reduced.
An upsetting pattern has risen inside of the previous couple of years, demonstrating a relentless increment of ladies being contaminated with HIV/AIDS every year. This pattern is particularly conspicuous in sub-Saharan Africa. While the illness is contaminating more ladies than any other time in recent memory and now represents about portion of those living with HIV around
Over the last two decades, Nigeria's healthcare system has deteriorated as a result of political instability, corruption and a mismanaged economy. Large parts of the country lack even basic healthcare provision, making it difficult to establish HIV testing and prevention services
HIV is an epidemic that is present worldwide, the disease is concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa for the most part. In context, of the estimated thirty-four million cases of HIV in 2008, twenty-two to twenty-three cases were in sub-Saharan Africa. On the contrary, 1.4 million people are infected with HIV in North America. (Sigall K. Bell, MD, 2011, p. 38). Further, the sum of global infections approximately two million are under fifteen of age. Approximately 50,000 cases a year are in the United States due to the lack of prevention, which then leads to overall prevention. Potential causes of the spreading of HIV are non-effective educational messages along with the high-risk sexual behavior. Also, this just calls for increasing chances of acquiring
infectious immune disease has had a devastating impact mentally, physically, economically and socially since this pandemic began. Sub-Saharan Africa is about 15% of the worlds population, and it
Although HIV is no longer the automatic death sentence it was in the 80’s, it remains a thorn even in our modern societies. For instance, HIV treatment is exponentially expensive, and can only be afforded by residents in developed countries. In fact, most third world nations are still in the 80’s as far as HIV treatment technology is concerned. Fatality rates particularly in Africa are astronomical to say the least (Rensburg 267). With prices, for
Most-at-risk populations (MARPs)/KPs including sex workers, people who inject drugs, gay men and other men who have sex with men and their sex partners bear a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic and accounted for 45% of all new infections in 2015. These population are also greatly marginalized and affected by human right abuses. Criminalization and stigmatization of sex work, drug possession and use and same-sex relationships, and discrimination including by health care workers makes accessing HIV prevention, treatment and care services difficult. To achieve the UNAIDS 90 90 90 target by 2020, and the ultimate goal for ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030, improving health care workers sensitivity to HIV prevention intervention services
The African countries south of the Sahara have some of the best HIV surveillance systems in the world. They provide solid evidence that the HIV infection rate has stabilized at a relatively low level in Senegal and that the extremely high rates in Uganda have been reduced. However, in most sub-Saharan countries adults and children are acquiring HIV at a higher rate than ever before: the number of new infections in the
Sub-Saharan Africa is the region of the world that is most affected by HIV/AIDS. The United Nations reports that an estimated 25.4 million people are living with HIV and that approximately 3.1 million new infections occurred in 2004. To put these figures in context, more than 60 percent of the people living with the infection reside in Africa. Even these staggering figures do not quite capture the true extent and impact that this disease causes on the continent. In 1998, about 200,000 Africans died as a result of various wars taking place on the continent. In that same year, more than 2 million succumbed to HIV/AIDS (Botchwey, 2000).
As of 2013, the CDC listed that the top 3 causes of mortality in Nigeria are malaria, lower respiratory infections, and HIV (CDC, 2013). HIV is the third leading cause of deaths in Nigeria and account for 9% of all deaths (CDC, 2013). HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It can be contracted through the exchange of bodily fluids with another infected individual. In Nigeria, the spread of HIV occurs through high prostitution rates, unsafe sexual practices, blood transfusions, and through mother-to-child transmission. The second cause of mortality in Nigeria are lower respiratory infections. Lower respiratory infections (LRIs) are commonly caused by viral infections. The most common lower respiratory infections are bronchitis, pneumonia, and the chronic cough. In Nigeria, the contraction of LRIs can occur due to a poor standard of living including a lack of basic household amenities such as proper ventilation and running water. LRIs can also occur when the immune system is weakened such as those living with HIV/AIDS. The number one leading cause of death in Nigeria is malaria. In 2010, malaria was more prevalent in Nigeria than any other country in the world (CDC, 2015). Malaria is a parasitic infection spread through bites from the Anopheles mosquito. This mosquito is most commonly found in warm climates, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, where the parasite it carries can thrive. When this infected mosquito bites an individual, its