Implement & Monitor Clients With Chronic Problems

1407 WordsOct 20, 20146 Pages
HLTEN 513B- IMPLEMENT & MONITOR CLIENTS WITH CHRONIC PROBLEMS Assessment Task- case study – 100% Word limit- 1500-2000 words Introduction: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease also known as the abbreviation ‘COPD’ and Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease, known as ‘COAD’ is a lung disease which causes a persistent obstruction of bronchial air flow. COPD is now the name preferred instead of COAD. There are different forms of COPD/ COAD including asthma, emphysema, bronchiectasis and chronic bronchitis. COPD is the most common respiratory disease and the progressive disease process is irreversible. The cause of the obstruction can be caused by many influencing factors. With the increase of cigarette smoking it is known that Tobacco…show more content…
This table below clearly shows in comparison to other Chronic Diseases how severe COPD can affect the population. Figure 1: Disease condition & Pathophysiology: Here is a flow chart to clearly express the Pathophysiology of COPD: Figure 2: According to the Australian Nurses’ Dictionary (King, J, et.al, 2012) COPD is defined as “A combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema in which there is disruption of air flow into or out of the lungs. Dyspnoea, wheezing and cough predominate, often made worse by any exertion or pollution in any environment. Patients may be severely disabled and require oxygen for long periods of time.” The most common cause of COPD is chronic cigarette smoking, although only 25% of smokers will develop COPD of a moderate severity. Others may develop COPD as a result of a normal decline in lung function as age progresses, these patients may suffer airflow obstruction without abnormal inflammatory changes. The airflow limitation results in three different pathological mechanisms: thickening of small airways, emphysema and luminal obstruction with mucus and plasma exudate. Some main etiologic factors are: • Inhalational exposures: cigarette smoke, environmental fumes and dusts, biomass for home cooking, passive cigarette smoke are all risk factors of airflow limitation. • Infection: viral infection in childhood can be associated with reduced lung function. • Nutrition: This was known as
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