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Improving Instructional Outcomes For Overall Effectiveness

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Educators are faced with mounting pressures of accountability and the constant quest for meaningful ways to identify various types of critical data sources, how to collect and analyze data properly, and most importantly, at the core of educator focus, is how to use the data to improve instructional outcomes for overall effectiveness (Monsaas & Engelhand, 1994; Wise, Lufkin, & Roos, 1991; Lane & Stone, 2002; Wayman, Midgely, & Stringfield, 2006; Shen & Cooley, 2008). In response to more rigorous accountability demands, educators are increasingly required to initiate changes in instructional practices and to elevate student achievement (Wise et al., 1991; Monasasa & Englehand, 1994; Halverson, Gregg, Prichett, & Thomas, 2005; Kerr, Marsh,…show more content…
administrators, coaches, and teachers), which is paramount in supporting gains in the academic achievement of students. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (2009) signed into law by President Barack Obama, clearly outlines the expectation for cultivating campus principals and teachers through such techniques as coaching and data cultured professional development targeting collection, analysis, and changes in instructional strategies for gains in student achievement. As federal and state mandates increasingly define data use and building data capacity as a basis for school improvement, many school districts are employing designated personnel to support principals and teachers with data use and shifting instructional practices (Lachat & Smith, 2005; Mangin & Stoelinga, 2008; Wayman & Cho, 2008; Wren & Vallejo, 2009; Marsh, McCombs, & Martorell, 2010). The designated instructional leadership personnel are identified by various monikers, such as Associate Principal, Academy Director, Dean of Academics, Deputy Principal, or Instructional Assistant Principal, and Academic Dean; the latter is the moniker of particular interest. The Academic Dean One of the earliest references to a designated instructional leadership position in America is the Dean of Women, which was first established in 1913 in Chicago (Johnson, 1929). In the 1920s, Academic Dean employment relied heavily on the principal and his or her determination of the appropriate
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