Independent Healht Insurance Company: BlueCross and BlueShield Association

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Introduction
BlueCross BlueShield Association (BCBSA) is an independent health insurance association which is founded in 1929. It is made up by 37 different health insurance organizations and companies in the United States. They directly or indirectly provide health insurance to over 100 million Americans. Under the Association, it has two famous products. One is Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs), and the other is Preferred Provider Organization (PPOs). Most American who has health insurance from their employer are enrolled either an HMO or PPO. All of these managed care plans go through the health plan’s network, which contract with doctors, health care providers, clinics, and hospital.
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Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs)
HMO is an organization that provides or arranges managed care for health insurance, individual and other entities in the United States. It existed prior to the 1970s, which required employer who has 25 or more employee to offer HMO healthcare. In most of HMO plans, it required the insurers to select a primary care physician (PCP) who is responsible for all their healthcare services. If they need care from a physician specialist in the network, their primary care physician will have to provide them with a referral. If they don’t get the referral or they select to go to see a doctor outside of your HMO’s network, they will most likely have to pay all or most of the cost.
Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs)
In health insurance, a

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