Indian casinos helped get tribes out of poverty and neglect. “ tribal members had to look too country government to access welfare programs, which were often far the remote Indian reservations.” (Kallen 18) When the benefit programs changed, the government continued to fund tribal welfare. “The Indian Nations sought out new revenue sources to help their people. They found it thru gaming.” (Kallen 12). The Indian nation went through many issues such as poverty and unemployment. On reservations, there are not that many opportunities. They did not have a voice when it came to choosing their reservation they were forced to be there. The land is not very useful for agriculture or mining, but gaming was their way of getting ahead in life.
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The major difference between Indian gaming and State owned casinos is the location, which are always on Native American land, the Revenue. The selection of games, and the pay back
Although while some Native American Tribes may benefit financially because of the casinos, most have the worst standard of living in the United States.
American Indian culture included gambling for many centuries. More than 100 tribes were known to play different versions of dice games before the Europeans settled in the United States. In the United States, gambling on Indian reservations has become quite common. There are 225 tribes in 28 states who operate some sort of gaming facility. Gambling on reservations was initially established to promote economic development in order to increase the standard of living. It was seen as a way to increase income on poverty-stricken reservations. (Momper 2010)
The current generation of Native Americans does not deserve reparations for what happened to their ancestor because it is unreasonable to say that the current generations of Native Americans are disadvantaged due to the large revenues they generate from gambling. In the United States today, Native American gaming comprises casinos, bingo halls, and other gambling operations on India reservations or other tribal land. These areas are all have tribal sovereignty, which means that states have limited ability to forbid gaming there because of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988. Due to the negative affects from large revenues of gambling, Native Americans should not receive reparations for their land. Currently, almost half of American’s
There are many ways Indian Gaming effects local and regional economies. It can be argued that it has been very beneficial. It can also be argued that it has been a detriment. Since 1988, when the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act was passed, it has been providing a means of income for the tribes that participate. Indian gaming is beneficial to tribes and surrounding communities because it creates economic stability for the tribes, provides well-paying jobs, and economic benefits for surrounding communities and the state.
Indian Gaming was birthed in 1979 when the Seminole Tribe opened a high stakes bingo hall on their reservation in Hollywood, Florida and immediately, the state tried to shut it down. But they were resilient. The Seminole Tribe took the state to court and eventually won. A decision made by the United States Supreme Court in 1981 ruled in favor of the Seminole
3). Of course, these high growth industries pertain to casinos as depicted through the picture, which precedes the text. of a large Bingo Casino owned by the Coeur D’Alene Tribe. This only serves to further the growing belief in America's society that Native Americans have struck it rich with the establishment of Casinos, but unemployment among adult Indians is about 15 percent – roughly three times the national average – and Native Americans remain America’s poorest people. Of the more than 560 Native American nations, only 224 are involved in gaming (NARF, n.d., para. 3).
The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act was passed in 1988 by Ronald Regan (Davis 4.3.). This act was shaping for compromise between US federal government and Indian tribes. Also, Indian tribes hope to be able to protect their own sovereignty, and the US government was tended to regard gaming under their control. According to the “Casino Roots” by Jessica R. Cattelino mentioned, “it is a powerful image, yet one that renders gaming resources external to indigenous economic and political action. Similarly, studies of casinos "impact" on indigenous communities implicitly render gaming as a capitalist project that acts upon indigenous peoples (1).” The government passed this policy purposed to promote the development of tribal economies and avoid the
Along with the Supreme Court’s 1987 decision in California vs. Cabazon, the passing of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 has made gaming a significant part of tribal economic development. Gaming has brought about economic self-determination for Native Americans for the first time in over two hundred years (Neath, 1995). Over two hundred of the United States’ 544 federally recognized tribes have established gaming on tribal lands (Neath, 1995). However, along with the economic profits, Indian gaming has brought many Native Americans back to reservations after many years of living off-reservation.
So the profit can only be use to improve the education, welfare, and economic programs for Native American people. If they want to do anything else with the profit it would have to be approved first by the Department of Interior secretary (Indian Country Today Media network). The tribes get the profit only after the lenders and payout are paid first. In reality most Native American Indians don’t even profit from casinos at all.
The history of Native American tribes is a long, complicated, and more often than not, a sad one. Today, thanks to efforts to help tribes preserve their identity, culture and numbers by means of reservations, many Native Americans not only survive, but also thrive. Indian gaming is one means that has been a source of great income and prosperity for Native American tribes in the San Diego region. Although the economic impact of gaming has been very positive, critics of legalizing and regulating such casinos have expressed concerns regarding potentially negative impacts. While Indian gaming in San Diego has positive impacts for the economy and upliftment of Indian tribes, negative impacts could relate to industry monopolization.
Prior to the establishment of gaming casinos on tribe reservations, many Indian communities, especially in California, had little to no options in terms of the economic development of their tribe. This was the case because a lot of these tribes had almost no land available to them and the one which they actually had was almost always deprived of any natural resources or agricultural capabilities. Gaming gave these communities the opportunity to develop their economic potential, give that their land was located near a major metropolitan area or a major highway, which is the case with many of the Indian reservations in California. The development of this industry by the tribes, gave the ones which succeeded a lot of opportunities for not only their own people, but for nonindians as well. Unfortunately this rapid success of the Indian gaming industry gave rise to the image of the wealthy Indian, similarly to the one of the corporate white man, which carries with itself a lot of negativity. However, in the case of the Indians this negativity was even stronger, since in mainstream society it was essentially not acceptable for a Native American person to be rich and well-off.
Under the Indian Gambling Regulatory Act, the National Indian Gaming Commission was created to enforce the rules in the act the commission has the authority to close Indian gaming operations if they are found to violate the act. The Indian Gambling Regulatory Act has three classifications to regulate the gambling on Indian tribe’s reservations. The first classification contains traditional forms of Indian games and social games. The second classification contains bingo, pull-tabs, which are cards that the stickers are pulled off to see if items match to win, and authorized card games. The third classification is what is not covered under the first and second classifications. The Indian tribes are able t, for the most part, be able to regulate the first and second classifications as long as the tribe informs the state in which the reservation resides. However, the Indian tribes have to get permission from the reservation residing state before they could conduct any gambling that falls under the third classification. An Indian tribe cannot put gambling operations on lands that are in trusts by the Secretary if the Interior for the Indian
The economic benefit of the gambling industry is enormous. The Gambling industry builds and creates a city’s economy. Native American tribal governments maintain the increase of a gambling commerce because they believe it acts as a resource of jobs and extra income (Expanding Gambling in Arkansas). The gaming industry declares that it supplies to social progress. They argue that besides gambling itself they help welfare recipients find jobs (Expanding Gambling in Arkansas). In such states as Arkansas the gambling industry determines that they will bring in more than fifteen thousand jobs into the state. These jobs include lifeguards, waiters, secretaries, casino workers, and in addition to those, extra law enforcement agents will be employed to keep the peace (Metrobeat). The profits from
Adding to Native American casino fortunes, their casinos are likely to increase over the next few years. It is noted that several states are reaching agreements to allow the introduction or expansion of Native American casinos because of the additional revenues they can provide. This increases the Native American casinos opportunities and consitutes a high barrier for new entrants. The major source for this entry barrier is the cost disadvantage independent of scale regarding the favorable government polices vis -a -vis the Indian Gaming and Recration Act of 1988.