Indian Joe, Lightfoot Gonzales, And Narisco Allalha

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Before European explorers found their way to the Americas the countries were populated by indigenous people native to the landscapes. Each indigenous tribe had their own traditions, language and hierarchy. It is difficult to discern the exact population numbers of indigenous people before their exposure to Europeans in 1492; however, scholars estimate their numbers at roughly 37 million. By 1650, their population had dwindled to an estimated 9 million individuals, a decrease of 90%. In North America there are currently 562 federally recognized tribes. Joe “Indian Joe” Lightfoot Gonzales, also known as Narisco Allalha, is a descendent of one of the remaining Native American tribes, the Choctaw.

The Choctaw people were a matriarchal agrarian community that lived in the Southeastern portion of the United States, primarily in Mississippi and sections of Alabama. Tribal legends claim that the Choctaw people originated from "Nanih Waya", a sacred hill near Noxapter, Mississippi. The Choctaw desired a peaceful relationship with the European explorers, traders and homesteaders that began to enrich on their land and adopted several practices that endeared them to the new arrivals like centralized governments, literacy, market participation and written governmental documents. Their adoption of these various aspects of the colonists’ culture earned them the dubious distinction of being termed one of the “Five Civilized Tribes.” The Five Civilized Tribes consisted of the

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