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Infectious Diseases And Its Effects On The Health Of Chickens

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Introduction
This written report will cover both infectious and non-infectious diseases and their effects on the health of chickens. Causes of each disease will be explained along with symptoms and clinical signs that may occur during the onset of disease. This report will explain the treatment and prevention for the diseases chosen and any management strategies in place to control the disease.
Infectious Diseases

Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) (Avian pneumoencephalitis)
Newcastle Disease Virus is an infectious disease of poultry and fowl caused by the virus, ‘Paramyxovirus’ serotype 1 (Foster and Smith, 2017a); (Alexander, 2000). The severity of this virus depends on the susceptibility of the host and how virulent the virus is. Chickens
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Treatment, Prevention and Control
There is currently no treatment for Newcastle Disease Virus, however in some cases hyper-immune serum injections have been used on exposed birds that are not showing symptoms (Foster and Smith, 2017a) and antibiotics are occasionally given to prevent secondary infections (Jacob, 2015a). Due to NDV being highly contagious and severe it is classed as a notifiable disease, therefore any bird showing symptoms of this disease must be reported to the Animal and Plant Health Agency where action will be taken to prevent the disease from spreading (DEFRA, 2014b).
Vaccinations can be administered to protect birds against clinical signs and decrease the risks of contracting the virus (CFSPH, 2016). Strict biosecurity practices and correct husbandry are also vital in the prevention of NDV, this includes the isolation of any outbreaks, disposal of any infected carcasses, thorough cleaning and disinfection (Beautyofbirds, 2017); (DEFRA, 2014a).

Fowl Cholera (Avian Pasteurellosis)
Fowl cholera is a contagious bacterial disease seen in captive and wild fowls caused by ‘Pasteurella multocida’ to which domestic poultry; such as chickens, are particularly susceptible (West, 1976b); (Christensen, 2016) causing high morbidity and mortality and bacteraemia (OIE, 2016). Overcrowding, climate and stress are a few known environmental factors said to have an effect the severity of the
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