Instructional Design For Students With Learning Disabilities

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Questions from Readings 1 (7points):

Ryan Fraser
EPSY 3115: Reading 1
Dr. Freeman

Carnine, D. (1997). Instructional design in mathematics for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30, 130-141.

1. What are the 5 principles of effective instructional design? Identify and describe each principle. (2.5 points)
a. Big Ideas- Main ideas within a subject that will make learning specific concepts easier and more meaningful. Examples include: proportion, data analysis, probability, volume (Carnine 133).
b. Conspicuous Strategies- “Steps that students follow to achieve a certain goal” Steps are originally explained by the teacher then after practice and experience the students begin to follow them routinely (Carnine 134).
c. Efficient Use of Times- Teachers must find a balance between helping students with disabilities catch up with their classmates and not overwhelming the students by overloading them with information and work (Carnine 135).
d. Clear, explicit instruction on strategies- It is very important for teachers to understand that students have different prior knowledge and learning strategies. Teachers should explain the material in easy to understand language for the students so there is zero confusion (Carnine 136).
e. Appropriate practice and review-Teachers must make sure that students are always receiving practice, in order to help remember and be able to effectively apply “increasingly complex concepts and strategies”
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