Intercultural Competence Of International Recruiters37.

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INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE OF INTERNATIONAL RECRUITERS 37

Literature Review
Studies of intercultural competence over the past thirty years attempt to measure the success or growth of an individual’s knowledge, skills and attitudes in relation to other cultures (Sinicrope, Norris & Watanabe, 2007). Global learning outcomes such as intercultural communication skills, intercultural adaptability, intercultural sensitivity, intercultural maturity, and intercultural competence are skills that universities feel are important to thrive in a diverse society where effective interactions with people from other cultures is necessary (Deardorff, 2011; Fantini, Arias-Galicia, & Guay, 2001; Trede, Bowles & Bridges, 2013; Williams, 2005). Consequently,
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Educators need to justify program success by demonstrating annual increases in study abroad participation numbers in addition to providing quality measures related to cultural learning as well (Engle & Engle, 2003; Medina-López-Portillo, 2004). Ideally, students participating in a study abroad experience will gain an appreciation of their own culture as well as develop sensitivity towards culturally distinct others (Maharaja, 2009). Students who interact with people from diverse backgrounds will hopefully accept cultural diversity and overcome negative stereotypes (Dong, Day, & Collaco, 2008). Scholars often associate cultural competency with the skills and behaviors gained as individuals develop “more complex levels of cultural sensitivity” (Hernández & Kose, 2012, p. 514). Cultural sensitivity is one of the key ingredients needed to understand and engage in relationships with those from others from dissimilar backgrounds (Hernández & Kose, 2012).
Numerous assessment tools, ranging from simple short surveys to more complex behavioral and performance evaluations, attempt to measure intercultural competence (Matsumoto & Hwang, 2013; Sinicrope et al., 2007). Historically, study abroad administrators focused on program logistics, staffing, safety matters, and recruiting instead of

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