International Relations’ Theories Realism vs. Liberalism

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Social humanitarian sciences focus on studying global political processes and the object of its research are social phenomena, which are defined as “international relations” in the world we know. International relations are comprised of many different categories, such as foreign policy, international politics or world politics. However, the central issue of international politics is the international relations. The term “international relations” has been first used by English philosopher J. Bentham at the end of 18th century. It is important to note that it is not accidentally that the term appeared at that particular time, as the border line of 18-19th centuries is marked by evolution of the international relations’
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The essence of first paradox lies in understanding that alongside with aspiration to use nuclear or other power in international relations, there is a clear threat of universal nuclear catastrophe. Second paradox is connected with urge to develop a nuclear policy with the help of which, one can avoid possible consequences of the nuclear catastrophe. The third paradox was seen by Morgenthau in the continuous nuclear arms race and attempts to end such. Lastly, the fourth paradox consists that with existence of nuclear power the relations between allies are changed in core. Thus, in conclusion

Morgenthau stated that: “any attempt, despite of its ingenuity and foresight, aimed at tying up nuclear power with targets and methods of state policies, gets negated by the unusual destructive force of nuclear power”. Being a popular school of thought in United States, realism found its followers in Europe as well; though, at large European scientists employed Morgenthau’s views and concepts only to explain various global phenomena. The French school of thought has been a leader on European continent, with its leading representative, R. Aron. Aron, was not an orthodox follower of the realism theory, rather he critiqued and opposed the realism postulates, though ironically coming at the end to the same conclusions. However, the main differences proposed by Aron, was the availability of the industrial power as means of war, providing
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