Introduction. Chemistry Is Being Applied Everywhere And

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Chemistry is being applied everywhere and every day. In some cases chemistry can pertain to acids and bases. These components are very useful when it comes to trying to figure out reac-tion stoichiometry, ionization constants, RICE tables, making buffer solutions, and stabilizing pH solutions. Acid equations include HA as the acid and H2O as the base. One example of an acid reacting with a base can be seen in Equation 1.
Equation 1. HA(aq) + H2O(l)  H3O+(aq) + A-(aq)
The Bronsted-Lowry theory connects acids as being a proton donor and bases as being a proton acceptor.1 A weak acid produces a strong conjugate base and a strong acid produces a weak con-jugate base. HA is the acid and H3O+ is the conjugate acid while H2O
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Equation 4. pH = -log[H+]
Equation 5. pH = pKa + log([A-]/[HA])
Titrations are a great way to determine an unknown substance by using a certain amount, at a time, of a known solution that is eventually added to the unknown. This helps determine what the unknown substance is by using the pH, pKa, and formula weight. Titrations can either be ti-trated by a base or acid.
Materials & Methods
Sodium hydroxide pellets (NaOH), potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP), hydrochloric acid (HCl), acetic acid (CH3COOH), and sodium acid anhydrous (NaCH3COO) were used in the ex-periments. The pH electrode and meter were also used alongside some of these chemicals in the experiment.
Experiment 1: Standardization of Sodium Hydroxide: Acid-Base Titration
The NaOH solution was prepared first by gathering one gram of the NaOH pellets to prepare 250 mL of 0.1 M NaOH solution. The pellets were weighed out on a top loading balance. Then the 100 mL of deionized (DI) water was mixed with the pellets with a stir plate and stir bar in a beaker. The solution was transferred to a 250 mL volumetric flask pre-rinsed with DI water. More DI water was added to reach the 250 mL mark on the flask. Then the flask was inverted and then shaken gently to distribute the solution evenly. This solution was then transferred to a plastic bottle pre-rinsed with DI water. It was then labeled with the identity and concentration of the solution

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