preview

Investigating What Macro-sociological Approaches and Micro-sociological Approaches Tells Us About Student Under-achievement in School

Decent Essays
Investigating What Macro-sociological Approaches and Micro-sociological Approaches Tells Us About Student Under-achievement in School

Macro-sociology approaches offer explanations for social phenomena in terms of the way in which social systems work as a whole. Micro-sociology gives explanations in terms of how people make things happen by interpreting their experience and acting on their interpretations.

Macro-sociology divides into consensus and conflict approaches. The former view society as similar to the human body, where everyone functions together to enable society to work well. Functionalists believe that society is run in the best interest for everyone. Conflict theories view society as
…show more content…
The differential rewards that adults receive are seen by both successful, and the less successful, as justified and fair, because both groups had equal opportunities.

Educational failure is thus seen either as part of the way in which people are placed in society according to their ability (some people have to fail) or as evidence that the system isn't working properly. Functionalist writers point out that schools act as sieves grading out higher ability children. The least able therefore fail.

A conflict view of the education system is that it is a site of ideological struggle. It enforces class differences by helping the middle-class to succeed while preventing working class children from fulfilling their true potential. According to Poulantzaz the school is just part of the Ideological State Apparatus concerned with the manipulation of values and beliefs.

Educational failure is thus seen as due to the fact that schools are a mainly middle-class institution. Different groups have fundamentally different ideas and interests and therefore education will benefit some more than others.

There are various conflict theories which give different views about educational failure. For example Marxist approaches argue that the education system imposes the dominant values of the ruling
Get Access