Issue of sovereignty Firstly, economic integration requires willingness to share their sovereignty

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Issue of sovereignty
Firstly, economic integration requires willingness to share their sovereignty at the political level in order to ensure that community goals preceed over national interests. It is not clear whether the members of any of Africa’s RECs are prepared to do this in a meaningful way(Alves et al, 14). Sovereignty and nationality concerns drive African member states to become reluctant actors in their approach to integration because it can undermine the sovereignty of their states. As a result, the strong prevalence of national sovereignty and efforts to guard it, has led to the creation of an inconsistent organizational structure that lacks supranational scope (Ningaloo, 18). Regional integration have been influenced by two
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This pattern is very different from what has taken shape in East Asia, especially China. The FDI directed China is both market-seeking and efficiency-seeking.
Single sided benefits of integration
The third major drawback to regional integration (RI) in Africa is that it tends to either benefit the stronger members only or in some cases, it costs the stronger nations disproportionately. This results in unequal transaction benefits and payoffs in regional integration agreements(The Challenges of Post-1990 Regional Integration in Africa, 7). According to the standard theory of regional integration as presented by Anthony Venables, when there are counties that perform substantially better than the other states economically in a RI arrangement (such as South Africa in SADC), resources tend to flow from the weakest in the group to the strongest, “where it is relatively cheaper and easier to do business, and where there are better-developed connections to global export markets”(Alves et al, 14). As a result, relatively stronger economies will grow at the expense of the weaker members in the RI arrangement. This theory has proven to be true in Africa. On this flip side, as it relates to the distribution of costs and benefits to providing regional public goods, some members also free ride on the efforts of others. Even if

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