John Bowlby Attachment Theory Essay

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Slide 1 - What does the research say about attachments
A psychoanalyst, John Bowlby, developed the attachment theory in 1969 after examining the intense distress that infants exhibited when separated from their parents. His observations showed that babies would perform extraordinary acts to prevent separation or to re-establish proximity. Using ethological theory, Bowlby posited that attachment behaviours, like crying and frantic searching, can be described as adaptive responses during separation from a main attachment figure. Moreover, Bowlby asserted that in evolutionary history, infants who preserved proximity to an attachment figure through attachment behaviours increased their rate of survivability to the reproductive age.
Fundamentally, …show more content…

Since mothers usually take care of their children, attachment theory places the huge burden of responsibility for their children’s addictions on them. Höfler and Kooyman (1996) discussed the criticism that shows the gap between attachment theory and addiction. They noted that based on studies in the 1990s, good support and another caring adult can replace the presence of a mother apart from the reality that they can leave temporarily without damaging the child psychologically and socially. Citing Bronfenbrenner (1979), they explored the relevance of the ecological perspective of human development on addiction as it also underpins the role of cultural values and environmental differences in shaping human behaviour, including addictions (as cited in Höfler & Kooyman, 1996, p. …show more content…

8). Furthermore, a parent who has alcohol use disorder may engage in heavy or binge drinking despite having children aged 0 to 14 years old (Hutchinson et al., 2014, p. 9). Moreover, drug addiction or alcoholism can be connected to child abuse as people with substance dependence may dull their sense of responsibility or morality and consideration for the consequences of their actions (Hutchinson et al., 2014, p. 10). Alcoholism in particular is associated with domestic violence (Laslett et al., 2015). Psychological problems may induce or be a risk factor for addiction too (De Rick et al., 2009). Ethnicity may also be a factor as Australian indigenous groups tend to consume alcohol at higher levels than the general population (Hutchinson et al., 2014, p. 10). Moreover, conditions of poverty, poor education, and unemployment are risk factors that can affect the addiction of a parent (Laslett et al., 2015). Social, economic, and psychological problems can heighten the risk of a parent’s

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