Key Problems Associated With Titanium Machining And The Mechanism Responsible For Tool Failure

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Ezugwu and Wang (1997) presented a review on the main problems associated with titanium machining, including tool wear and the mechanism responsible for tool failure. They suggest that uncoated carbides (WC/Co) cutting tools are better than most coated cutting tools for machining a titanium alloy. The high chemical reactivity of titanium causes welding of work-piece material on the cutting tool during machining, leading to chipping and premature tool failure. The prominent failure modes in titanium machining were: notching, flank wear, crater wear, chipping, and catastrophic failure. Different tool materials have different response to different wear mechanism. Crater wear is closely related to the chemical composition of the cutting tool. The conclusions presented by this researcher, they suggest that dissolution-diffusion wear dominates on the rake and flank face for uncoated cemented carbides used for the turning of titanium alloys. At very high cutting speeds and temperatures, the conclusion is that plastic deformation and development of cracks due to thermal shock will be the dominating wear mechanisms. Change of feed rate, depth of cut or cutting speed give changes in the wear rates. They also suggest that cutting fluids have to be used during titanium machining to minimize high stresses and temperatures. The cutting fluid has to work both as coolant and lubricating agent to lower the cutting forces and avoid chip welding, which is a phenomenon often experienced during

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