Recently in 2010, Hocine Kimouche, Djamel Abed and Brahim Atrouz from the Laboratory of the Microwave and Radar, Ecole Militarie Polytechnique ( EMP), Algeria proposed the novel microstrip patch antenna design within the inverted stepped cone slot ground antenna. The dependence of the bandwidth on the main parameters design had been investigated. It would found that by choosing the suitable combinations of the feed and slot shapes and the tuning their sizes, the optimum operating bandwidth could be obtained. The proposed antenna has an omni-directional pattern at (x-y) plane for all the measured impedance bandwidth, which are covered the commercial Ultra-wide band.
In 2010, Li Zhiyong, Zhang Qian, Wang Huilong and Liu Yunlin from the Laboratory of the Electromagnetic and Microwave, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China presented Ultra-wide band microstrip-fed antenna with L shape ground application. The current path of the ground plane would enlarged by using the L shaped ground which are improved the impedance bandwidth performance. The notch would inserted on the ground plane under the microstrip line to enhance the impedance matching of the antenna. The proposed antenna are designed to the operate over a 3.3GHz to 12GHz for the S11 less than the -10dB and they provides a good omnidirectional radiation patterns. The Simulated results showed that the proposed antenna can be a good candidate for the hand held Ultra-wide band applications owing to its attractive
Thus the speed and reliability can be improve by judging the number of antennas. In the aspect of data rate, Option 1 has the highest transfer rate comparing to routers that has single-band capabilities. This indicates that Option 1 is able to perform better by transferring 600Mb data per second, 150 Mb more than other routers. Option 1 is strongly recommended as it is more affordable in prices with comparably better performance. Furthermore, Option 1 is equipped with various wireless LAN standard that provides faster and reliable wireless signals. It uses either 2.4GHz (single band) or 5GHz (dual band) band of frequencies in which wireless communications operate. Demands of dual band arise when there are intensive work within a LAN network and provides better internal network performance due to less interference (Lynn,
Here we cut a cylindrical slot in the patch with outer radius R1 and inner radius R2 (R1>R2) as shown in Fig.5. By using cylindrical slot in the above rectangular slot antenna we get all three bands as with improved return loss and bandwidth as shown in Figure 6. The three bands which we are getting are better as compared to previous result of microstrip patch antenna with four rectangular slots.
For this week’s lab we are using various scenarios to compare and contrast different antenna types and solutions to reduce signal spillover in a specific wireless network. Also we are evaluating and
In the beginning of the episode “Who am I” of Radio Lab, they mention that they interviewed a guy named Steven Johnson, who wrote a book, and they talk about how he participated in a bio feedback experiment where he could see what was happening inside his body. He starts to question a lot about his brain that he even writes a book about it. They then start to talk about mirrors. Steven Johnson shares that when he was younger he would look at himself in the mirror and ask, “what does it mean, that I’m me?” He would question what made him, him.
Developing reconfigurable filter for overlay and underlay CR would be the effective solution for sensing and sharing by ensuring security. This would start by studying techniques employed in the design of UWB filters. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2 brings out the theory of UWB and Cognitive Radio. Filter geometries and performances are discussed in Chapter 3. Section 4 compares the results of existing developed filters available in the literature. Section 5 concludes the
In the 1940’s, radar was introduced to assist with enemy tracking and aircraft guidance systems such as the GPS. Radar calculated the location of an aircraft from the ground (Eyewitness Visual Dictionaries 54) in order to find its direct location. This was significant because it aided as part of the warning and communication systems of a nearby enemy which was key for World War II. Without the radar, the Allies would have struggled to prepare for enemy attacks. The GPS relied on radio navigation and satellites for the guidance systems and created a lead on enemies. Likewise, in order to defend against possible air attacks, the United States War Department formed the U.S. Air Defense Command on February 26, 1940 (Taylor 5). With this new installation,
In the movie Star Wars A New Hope, Han Solo states, “She’ll make point five past Lightspeed”(IMBD, Quotes for Han Solo, 2015, para 49). This is referring to the speed of light. Microwaves are used for heating foods quickly. Though, what most people don't use microwaves for is to measure to speed of light with the help of electromagnetic waves.
While radio astronomers are able to observe at any time of day and night, optical astronomers are mainly limited to observing at night. One would think that both radio astronomers and optical astronomers would be able to study at the same and all the time due to both of them studying the universe thru light waves, yet still optical astronomers can not typically study during the day. Although both study thru light waves. radio astronomers study using radio waves and optical astronomers usually use light in the visible light spectrum. Therefore, while radio waves are observable during the day and night, light in the visible light spectrum is variable on what is visible to humans. During the day, due to the absorption of molecules, the sky is
Radar astronomy utilizes radio waves to enhance our understanding of the distances, movements, land formations, and positions of celestial bodies contained within our universe and how they might impact our life on Earth. Discoveries have been made possible through the return rate of echoes of radio waves gathered from the targeted object. Utilization of inspecting the galaxy through radar astronomy is precise and does not require large space endeavors. Nevertheless, usage of radar astronomy also gives us an accurate representation of the terrain and land formation of celestial bodies such as stars, asteroids, and planets. Over fifteen thousand discoveries of near-earth asteroids have been found as of October 13, 2016, with approximately 30
The procedure to conduct the experiment, the effect of various powers of microwave radiation on the growth of grass plants is fairly simple. First, to perform this experiment, one must gather the necessary materials. These include 250 grass seeds, 25 paper cups, 3675 mL of soil, approximately 50 paper towels, microwave oven capable of being used at 100 Hz, 500 Hz and 900 Hz, one measuring cup(to measure materials), one liter of water, masking tape, sharpie marker, environment with ample sunlight and air, a ruler with centimeter markings, stove capable of heating up to 34°C, metal pot capable of holding up to 100 mL, thermometer, and a stopwatch (stopwatch application on a device will also work). Next, lay out the paper towels under the work environment. After that, place the
Introduction The objective of this experiment was to find the speed of light using a microwave oven. Microwave ovens use a particular microwave frequency to excite molecules of water. Since water is present in marshmallows, this means that microwaves heat up and they do it quickly. Marshmallows are mostly sugar and water filled with lots of small air bubbles.
Figure 2 shows the radially averaged horizontal temperature structure in TCs inferred from AMSU-A data at first LMI with a horizontal resolution of ~70 km and a vertical resolution of ~1-3 km. Anomalies are with respect to the temperature observed at 600 km away from storm center at each height. The UT warming bulges upward near storm center where the convective activity is strongest. Relative to the chosen background, the LS cooling occurs at 17 km above sea level or about 100 mb as shown in Koteswaram  and at about 200 km away from storm center, which is outward from the typical radius of the eye (15-30 km, [Weatherford and Gray, 1987]) and from the
Fundamental characteristics of this antenna such as the radiation directivity and the frequency response are measured. Figure shows a picture of the proposed antenna that has a shape of ―tears drop‖. Using Novel Ultra Wideband Planar Reflector Antenna a reflector antenna relies on reflection of energy from the reflector. Reflector antennas tend to be good directional and high gain antennas . There are some classes of ultra wideband reflector antennas, such as planar, corner, and parabolic cylinder reflector antennas.