Chapter 2: Literature Review
1. Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) system
Aquaculture industry is supplying feed to human population and year by year production of aquaculture is increase. Increasing of human population causes high demand of food including seafood but fisheries meet the problem which is wild stock is decline. Thus, aquaculture industries have to supply more food source to meet the demand and at the same time wild stock not decline. Looking at the present growth of global aquaculture production, it proves that the sectors will be able to solve the future challenge and its production will be double within 30 years (Troell, 2008). But, aquaculture sector causing degradation of environment, pollution and destroyed habitat of aquatic animal. But, the waste produced from aquaculture farm much smaller if compared to that generated by the agricultural sector that causing environmental degradation (Azad et al, 2017). Environmental friendly system should be introduced to the farmer so that pollution can be reduced, discharged effluent into the open water can be minimised. One of the best solution is introducing integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) system to the farmer.
Integrated multi…show more content… Fish or shrimp will provide dissolved and particulate nutrients and oxidation reduction potential reducing compound to the inorganic extractive and organic extractive (Sasikumar et al, 2015). Selection of fish species or shrimp species, organic extractive and inorganic extractive is depends on type of system that wanted to establish. IMTA system that is open to the environment such as cage culture have sufficient to rear extractive organisms but IMTA system with land-based such as recirculation system require much tighter coupling of the different trophic level under cultivation (Sasikumar et al,