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Low Birth Outcomes

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Low birth weight (LBW), defined as an infant weighing less than 2500g at birth, and very low birth weight (VLBW), infants <1500g, are health outcomes that themselves are indicators of future health outcomes, as well as present and future morbidity and mortality risk (“Birth Outcomes,” 2017). A large component of these associated outcomes are neurobehavioral, manifesting as impaired cognitive and language development measured in childhood, as well as lower IQ, poorer academic achievement, and reduced executive function measured later on (Aarnoudse-Moens et al., 2009; Barre et al., 2011; Hack et al., 2002; Linsell et al., 2015; Litt et al., 2012). Although decreasing in prevalence, neurosensory impairments, such as cerebral palsy, blindness,
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