Machine Learning

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1. Introduction

Humans can expand their knowledge to adapt the changing environment. To do that they must “learn”. Learning can be simply defined as the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, or being taught. Although learning is an easy task for most of the people, to acquire new knowledge or skills from data is too hard and complicated for machines. Moreover, the intelligence level of a machine is directly relevant to its learning capability. The study of machine learning tries to deal with this complicated task. In other words, machine learning is the branch of artificial intelligence that tries to find an answer to this question: how to make computer learn?

When we say that the machine learns, we mean that
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For example, classification algorithms which assign instances to the predefined classes requires supervised learning systems.

There are also many other subcategories of supervised learning systems according to learning strategies. One of them is rote learning and direct implanting of new knowledge. In this category there is no inference or transformation of the data. All the required knowledge for a machine to learn is created during the programming or directly given as facts within the primitive database by a programmer or a user.

Learning from instruction is another subcategory of supervised learning. The system gets the required knowledge as structured input from a teacher. Teacher can be many things such as a human or a textbook. In this case, although the system is supposed to be able to make some inferences, the large part of the burden remains with the instructor. Learning from instruction is very similar to the learning of a student from a teacher in real life, therefore many methods used in this subcategory parallels with formal education methods.

Another subcategory of supervised learning is learning by analogy. This system adapts an existing program for a closely related function for which it was not originally designed. This is useful because there are many similar tasks in real world and people can perform these
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