Malari A Common Life Threatening Diseases

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Malaria is one of the most common life-threatening diseases found throughout the tropics and subtropics, especially in the sub-Saharan countries in Africa. In 2014, over 40% of global malaria deaths were found in two countries: Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (IBTimesUK). According to the World Health Organization, more than 90% of Nigeria’s population is at risk for contracting malaria and there are an estimated 100 million malaria cases with over 300,000 deaths per year, which are about 100,000 more deaths than from HIV/AIDS. Malaria is caused by parasites that are spread to humans through an infected mosquito’s bite. Luckily, malaria is preventable and curable. The mortality rates have fallen by 47% globally since …show more content…

falciparum. This parasite undergoes three stages: the liver stage, the bloodstream stage, and the mosquito stage. Plasmodium is unique because it must move from mosquito to human and then back to mosquito again, which is very common in eukaryotic parasites. The interaction cannot begin by casual contact; it must be initiated by a bite since mosquitoes feed on human blood. This allows P. falciparum to differentiate multiple times for infection and transmission to fulfill the human and mosquito host requirement. All four Plasmodium parasites undergo a very similar life cycle. The infection commences when a female Anopheles mosquito bites the human and injects saliva filled with anticoagulants and sporozoites. Sporozoites are spindle-shaped, motile, asexual cells that are carried and propelled into the bloodstream. Sporozoites move toward the cells of the liver (hepatocytes) and begin to rapidly divide in an asexual replication known as schizogony. This division leads to the next life cycle form: merozoites. Merozoites invade other liver cells and are released into the host’s bloodstream. Some liver-stage parasites from P. ovale and P. vivax go into a dormant period instead of immediate replication. This is the main cause for relapses and latency, since these dormant hypnozoites can reactivate several months or years after the first infection. Once in the bloodstream, merozoites

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