Chapter 12: The Crisis of the Later Middle Ages
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I. Prelude to disaster
A. Poor harvests led to famines in the years 1315-1322.
1. Fewer calories meant increased susceptibility to disease and less energy for growing
B. Diseases killed many people and animals.
C. Economies slowed down and population growth came to a halt.
D. Weak governments were unable to deal with these problems.
1. Starving people turned against rich people and Jews.
2. English kings tried to regulate the food supply, but failed.
II. The Black Death
A.…show more content…
In France, neither the king nor the provincial assemblies wanted a national
and developed its own organization.
5. The war generated feelings of nationalism in England and France.
IV. The decline of the church's prestige
A. The Babylonian Captivity (1309-1377)
1. The pope had lived at Avignon since the reign of King Philip the Fair of France and thus
was subject to French control.
a. The Babylonian Captivity badly damaged papal prestige.
b. It left Rome poverty stricken.
2. Pope Gregory XI brought the papacy back to Rome in 1377, but then Urban VI alienated
the church hierarchy in his zeal to reform the church.
3. A new pope, Clement VII, was elected, and the two popes both claimed to be legitimate.
B. The Great Schism (1378-1417)
1. England and Germany recognized Pope Urban VI, while France and others recognized
the antipope, Clement VII.
2. The schism brought the church into disrepute and wakened the religious faith of many.
C. The conciliar movement
1. Conciliarists believed that church authority rested in councils representing the people--not
the authority of the pope.
2. Marsiglio of Padua had claimed in 1324, in Defensor Pacis, that authority within the
church should rest with a church council and not the pope and that the church was
subordinate to the state.
3. John Wycliffe attacked papal authority and called for even more radical reform of the
a. He believed