In the world, stroke is the rd leading cause of death as well as leading long term disability cause as of . In addition, according to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, % of potentially preventable deaths in the US between and is attributed to stroke. Notably, % of all stroke deaths are women. Current research indicates the existence of a difference between how women and men present with stroke, how they are treated in an acute setting, and how they respond to treatment methods. Said disparity is of vital importance, given that targeted sex-specific therapies can help improve clinical outcomes and reduce the burden of disease in the population. Therefore, this review will examine the variations between men and women in risk factors, epidemiology, presentation, treatment, and outcomes.
Classification and Pathophysiology
Strokes are primarily classified as ischemic or hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes are the most common (% of all strokes) and occur due to obstruction of a blood vessel supplying the brain; they can be further sub-classified as thrombotic or embolic, depending on the site of occlusion. Physiologically, ischemic stroke occurs is preceded by endothelial damage in cerebral blood vessels that causes inflammation and fatty deposit accumulation in arterial walls. Subsequently, this leads to a decrease in blood vessel diameter and vascular flow. In turn, reduced oxygen and glucose supply to brain tissue creates an ischemic core (where blood flow
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The most common causes of strokes are thrombosis. This is when a clot forms in one of the arteries, mostly in the carotid in the neck and the vertebral artery. The blood is thick and moves very slowly through the artery. The thrombus will form on the damaged area of the artery wall and will cut off the flow of blood to the brain. The area of the artery that is damaged is cause by arteriosclerosis. This form of
An ischemic stroke is typically caused by a thrombosis, which is a blood clot or an embolism, when the blood clot detaches and infiltrates the blood stream.
Ischemic stroke is the blockage of blood vessels in the brain as a result of blood clots (thrombi), causing the portions of the brain nourished by the vessel and its tributaries to be starved of nutrients, poisoned, and to eventually die (“Symptoms
A stroke can be generally be defined in two types of categories. The first and most common type of stroke is called ischemic stroke. This occurs when a blood clot (cerebral thrombosis) blocks a blood vessel in the brain. Blood flow beyond the blood clot is then
Strokes are the 5th leading cause of death in the US, with one person dying every 4 minutes as a result. For African Americans, stoke is the 3rd leading cause of death.(http://www.cdc.gov/stroke/facts.htm) It is estimated that About 795,000 people have a stroke each year; about one every 40 seconds - there are many medical conditions that can cause a stroke and it is estimated that 8 out of 10 strokes can be prevented. However, there are some things that cannot be controlled when you are predisposed to
stroke is an acute episode of focal dysfunction of the brain, retina, or spinal cord lasting longer than 24 h, or of any duration if imaging (CT or MRI) or autopsy show focal infarction or haemorrhage relevant to the symptoms ,which is a leading cause of death and long term disability worldwide. It results from transient or permanent disruption of cerebral blood flow, leading to necrotic death of the brain tissue supplied by the affected artery. It activates an inflammatory condition in the affected area, marked by infiltration of inflammatory cells. Inflammation can induce an apoptotic cell death in the transition region between necrotic and normal tissue, so called penumbra, for a fairly prolonged period of time..
Stroke previously known as Cerebrovascular accident is well-defined as ‘an abrupt cessation of cerebral circulation in one or more of the blood vessels distributing the brain. Due to the interruption or diminish of oxygen supply causes serious damage or necrosis in the brain tissues (Jauch, Kissella & Stettler, 2005). There is a presence of one or more symptoms such as weakness or numbness or paralysis of the face, arm or leg, difficulty speaking or swallowing, dizziness, loss of balance, loss of vision, sudden blurring or decreased vision in one or both eyes and headache. Stoke is categorised into two types, Ischaemic and haemorrhagic
The three hospitals that I have chosen to compare the condition of strokes to are, INOVA Fairfax Hospital, George Washington University Hospital, and Reston Hospital Center. First of all, a stroke, occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted. When this happens, brain cells in the immediate area begin to die because they stop getting the oxygen and nutrients they need to function. There are two major kinds of strokes that I will be comparing among the hospitals. The first one is an ischemic stroke which is caused by a blood clot that blocks a blood vessel or artery in the brain. Then the second is a hemorrhagic stroke which is caused by a blood vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain. People who suffer from strokes can have serious
A cerebrovascular accident more commonly known as a stroke or brain attack is the term used to describe the sudden death of brain cells in a localized area due to inadequate blood flow. In order to woke the brain needs a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients. This supply is carried to the brain
As stated previously, stroke occurs due to inadequate blood flow to the brain which results in cell death in that area of the brain. Blood supply to the brain comes from the internal carotid arteries (ICA), which accounts for 80% of total supply, and the vertebral arteries (VA) (Vrselja et al., 2014, p. 579). The ICA and VA, via the basilar artery, meet at the base of the brain forming a ring structure
There are three main strokes which include a ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic strokes and transient ischemic attack (TIA). A ischemic stroke is when there is a loss of blood flowing to an area of the brain, resulting in not being able to function a body properly. A hemorrhagic stroke happens when a weak blood vessel tear. According to the American Stroke Association, 13 percent of strokes are hemorrhagic. Lastly there is a transient ischemic attack (TIA) , also called a mini-stroke, a TIA is due to a temporary shortage of quantity of blood and oxygen to the brain. As Mayo Clinic states “About 1 in 3 people who have a transient ischemic attack will eventually have a stroke, with about half occurring within a year after the transient ischemic attack.”
Cerebral embolism which is when a blood clot configures in the circulatory system in another site, usually the main arteries in the heart or upper chest. Some of the blood clot then becomes loose and travels in the blood stream to the brain until it gets to a narrow blood vessel. It will then lodge itself causing loss of blood supply. ‘‘Ischemic strokes accounts for about 87 percent of all cases.’’ (Stroke Association, 2017). An additional reason of embolism is atrial fibrillation (an irregular heartbeat or AF) this means that blood clots can form in the heart, the blood clots can dislodge and travel from the heart to other areas of the circulatory system such as the brain. A haemorrhagic stroke is when a weak blood vessel bursts, this causes a bleed on the brain which creates swelling and pressure which damages the tissue and the cells in the brain. There are two types of haemorrhagic stroke; An intracerebral haemorrhage is when a weak blood vessel bursts. it’s caused by high blood pressure and they are less common than ischemic strokes. A subarachnoid stroke is when the burst blood vessel bleeds into the subarachnoid space, the space between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain. This type is uncommon and there is no warning or symptoms before it occurs.
Each year more than 795,000 Americans have a stroke. Strokes are the fifth leading cause of death for Americans but the risk of having a stroke varies with race and ethnicity. African Americans are more likely to die because the risk of having a first stroke is nearly twice as high for African Americans. Hispanics’ risk for a stroke is between whites and blacks. Age also has an impact on strokes as well. A risk of a stroke increases with age, strokes can and will occur at any age. But what causes people to have strokes?
As defined by Lemone, et al (2014) stroke is a disorder that occurs when there is abrupt diminution in blood flow to a localized area of the brain bringing about neurological deficits. Stroke can be classified into two types: ischaemic, caused by either
A stroke caused by a blocked artery by a blood clot or bursting of a blood vessel because of uncontrolled high blood pressure. There are main three types of the stroke. An ischemic stroke occurs when a blood clot blocks one of the arteries which supply blood to brain. A clot may be caused by fatty deposits (plaque) that build up in arteries and cause reduced blood flow (atherosclerosis) or other artery conditions. (mayo clinic). About 89%, strokes are ischemic strokes. Ischemic stroke includes thrombotic stroke. A thrombotic stroke occurs when a thrombus stuck in one of the arteries that supply blood to the brain. A clot build-up of fatty deposits in arteries. Another type of stroke is called the hemorrhagic stroke. This stroke occurs when a blood vessel leaks or ruptures in the brain. A bold vessel leaks or ruptures from many conditions like uncontrolled high blood pressure or overtreatment with anticoagulants and the weak spot in blood vessel walls. (mayo). Some people experience a mini-stroke it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA). A temporary decrease or clot stuck in a vessel in our brain causes TIA. It happens less than five minutes. This stroke does not have any symptom, because the blockage is