Numerous mental impacts of CSA are found in offspring of all ages. Children who are sexually abused are at considerably greater risk for stress and other anxiety symptoms, sadness and suicide ideation. These emotional issues can cause substantial distractions in normal development and often have a lasting impact, leading to dysfunction and distress well into adulthood. Behavioral problems, including physical aggression, non-compliance, and oppositionality occur frequently among sexually abused children and adolescents (Saunders, B.E., Kilpatrick, D.G., Hanson, R.F., Resnick, H.S., & Walker, M. E, 1999).
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
Studies have shown a clear correlation between childhood sexual assault (CSA) and negative sexual experiences later in life. Of relevance to the criminal justice system, these later forms of sexual victimization include sexual assault and sex work. The relationship between CSA and adverse sexual development is a correlation between two things, not a direct pathway from cause to effect. While survivors of sexual assault are at a higher risk of experiencing these later forms of victimization, this correlation represents a highly complex process involving a wide range of mediating factors and the intersections between them. Any experience of sexual assault is highly traumatic. Survivors of CSA, however, represent a unique population, because their trauma occurs near the start of the human developmental process and therefore alters all development thereafter.
Any victim of sexual abuse faces the chance of having their development impacted. This is especially true amongst children. Studies have proven that children who have been sexually abused by a female offender often have different developmental experiences (T.A. Gannon, 2008, p. 356). Mental illness is yet another impact that victims face. Many sexual abuse victims transpire into states of depression, rage, and suicide; they even have strained relationships with certain individuals (Denov, 2014, p.
The effects of childhood sexual abuse carry on with the children forever. To what extent and to what effect does abuse have on children during adulthood? What are the main issues that adults have been abused suffer from in adulthood? Do they have more of a physical issue with preforming with their partner in the bedroom or do they have more of a mental block due to their trauma? The world had been asking these questions for far too long and we need answers on how helping the children of our world. The questions that have been stated have been answered through the two articles that will be summarized below.
It has been observed that sexually abused children tend to be less socially competent, more aggressive, and more socially withdrawn than non-abused children. A specific interpersonal effect of sexual abuse among children is that of increased sexual behavior. This is prominent when we were
This paper will examine the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on women’s sexual behavior in adulthood. Childhood sexual abuse has been associated with a plethora of physical and emotional symptoms in women. It has been noted that there is a significant relationship between this maltreatment and the development of abnormal sexual behavior. Some women who have been abused as children are suffering from lack of sexual desire, emotional distress, sexual dysfunction, or engage in risky sexual behavior as they become adults. This paper has two purposes: (1) to provide a broad overview of the research on long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse on mental and physical health and (2) encourage counselors and therapists alike to seek knowledge of this issue and in turn provide victims of CSA with effective methods to overcome and deal with any long-term issues of childhood sexual abuse.
Forms of CSA include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure of the genitals to a child, displaying pornography to a child, actual sexual contact against a child, physical contact with the child's genitals, viewing of the child's genitalia without physical contact, or using a child to produce child pornography. The effects of child sexual abuse include depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, propensity to re-victimization in adulthood, and physical injury to the child, among other problems. Sexual abuse by a family member is a form of incest, and can result in more serious and long-term psychological trauma, especially in the case of parental incest. Approximately 15% to 25% of women and 5% to 15% of men were sexually abused when they were children. Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims; approximately 30% are relatives of the child, most often brothers, fathers, mothers, sisters and uncles or cousins; around 60% are other acquaintances such as friends of the family, babysitters, or neighbors; strangers are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases. Studies have shown that the psychological damage is often particularly severe when sexual assault is committed by parents against children due to the incestuous nature of the assault. Incest between a child or adolescent and a related adult has been identified as the most
The published articles in this literature review all prove evidence that child abuse can negatively affect those children in either their adolescences or adulthood, or even in both. None of the articles explore if those children abused later abuse their future children, however a study by Ehrensaft,
An article written about the effects of sexual abuse in accordance with male victims, claims: “[t]hree perspectives of early family relationships and attachment theory, developmental psychopathology, and trauma theory provide a conceptual understanding as to why some victims are vulnerable to the effects of sexual abuse while others appear resilient to it.” Although the study's main objective is to understand the developmental effects of male CSA survivors, it also notes that the majority of the data collected about the psychological well being of the sample is also representative of female CSA survivors. In a similar study on the repercussions of sexual abuse in male victims, Scott Eastman depicts a table simply explaining the process of coping, or the problems tied to CSA. Much like a story line, there is a beginning a middle and an end after the initial incident, but not all survivors reach the stages of completion and often times face difficulties coping. In the middle stage of the process, is distraction, obsessive review. These are symptoms tied to PTSD, defined as a disorder which a traumatic event causes flashbacks, nightmares, and uncontrollable thoughts about the event. It may reasonably be concluded that the obsessive thoughts are tied to PTSD because reviewing the traumatic experience may give the illusion of understanding to the survivor. In the final Stage of the process, following acceptance, is
While negative effects manifest differently in females than males, the abuse is equally damaging to both genders. In my experience, most male CSA victims are riddled with feelings of guilt and shame. Most often their abuse was perpetrated by a trusted male during a critical time in development. Although the sexual contact was unsolicited and unwanted, their body had a physiological response to stimulation. This confusion often contributes to the victim’s belief that the abuse was somehow their fault, therefore “causing an unwillingness to admit to being victimized, and difficulty making negative attributions regarding an otherwise positive person” Ondersma et al.). Rind’s utilization of a college sample excludes the aforementioned male CSA victims. Since their maladaptive behaviors often lead to addiction, delinquency, and poor academic performance, males who suffered more maladaptive effects are very unlikely to be included in a college sample. Therefore, Rind’s findings can’t be accurately generalized to the majority
Children who are physically sexually abused can experience trauma and impediments in the development of the brain. Additionally, Perry (2009) states that the majority of critical structure and functional organization takes place in childhood, and by the age of three the brain has reached 90% of adult size. During this time any experience the child undergoes will last a lifetime. Among the psychological effects of CPSA are intense fear, depression, and anger. Victims also suffer from the long-term effects of
Rasmussen, K. (2006, April). Sexually abusive children: Treatment recommendations from the literature and therapists. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/pqdweb?index=2&sid=2&srchmode=1&vinst=PROD&fmt=6&startpage=.1&clientid=25164&vname=PQD&RQT=309&did=1144195101
Annotated Bibliography: In this article, the author is making an argument that sexual abuse causes brain development problems in the long run. These children gain “a less ﬂexible state of equilibrium” (Gaskill 37). They then become poor socialized and have problems in regards to emotional and physical health. In order to these children, they need to be helped immediately,
Living in an abusive environment has a vast array of effects on children. More severe physical and sexual abuse towards a child could cause physical harm such as fractures and internal injuries (Lane, Bair-Merritt, & Dubowitz, 2011). These injuries would probably cause the child to experience severe pain and potentially cause permanent disability, disfigurement or death if not treated. It has been indicated that childhood abuse affects mental health and can increase susceptibility to depression, anxiety related disorders, ADHD and suicidal ideation. These issues could affect children throughout their lives and some may not surface until various stages of life (Comijs et al., 2013; Hart, & Rubia, 2012; Norman et al., 2012; Sugaya et al., 2012). This is not an exhaustive list of the potential mental or physical health affects of childhood
Although all therapists are aware of the childhood emotional abuse issue, it is possible that only few therapists understand the scope of the issue. Emotional maltreatment is harder to detect than other forms of abuse because it is more subtle. When Child Protective Services (CPS) conduct family assessments, it is the hardest form of abuse to prove because parents are very open about the topic and emotional abuse does not leave any physical evidence behind. However, it certainly influences a child's self-esteem, promotes the feeling of guilt, insecurity, and creates the inability to form stable relationships during adulthood. Although some behavioral disorders are related to emotional abuse, it is not possible to predict it correctly
Child sexual abuse has been reported up to 80,000 times a year, but the number of unreported instances is far greater, because the children are afraid to tell anyone what has happened (American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry). Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic experience affecting the lives of not only the victim, but those close to the victim as well. Many think there is only one person truly traumatized, but in fact, everyone involved is affected. The victim has to deal with their experience the rest of their lives. They may be more at risk for other mental issues as well, including depression. The family involved has to deal with its pain, often causing hardship and discord within the family. This is especially true