Mentalizing is a broad concept (cite). There are various theoretical constructs similar to mentalizing, such as Empathy (), Mindfulness (), Perspective-Taking (), Theory of Mind (), and so forth. Along with the constructs, related questionnaires have also been developed to measure these similar but different facets of mentalizing. Nevertheless, the measures based on Mentalizing Theory might be particularly suitable for clinical purposes because the theoretical framework is comprehensive and integrated with aspects of normal development, pathology, and treatment. In the developmental theoretical model, mentalizing is considered as a dynamic process. An individual’s mentalizing ability can fluctuate in different contexts () and under different emotional arousal levels (). The dynamic characteristic is especially crucial in understanding psychopathology and its treatment, but it also makes the task of developing a RF measure more complex. The key to overcome this difficulty could still be found in the theory. The common ground among the mentalizing theorists points out some possible ways to assess RF. From their point of view, mentalizing is a developmental achievement. Certain social cognitive functions that underpin interpersonal interaction are critical in understanding many serious psychological disorders (). The more mature secondary functions (), such as affect-regulation (), self-agency (or self-representation), flexible coping strategies (), and integrated thinking
In this essay I will first of all explain the main principles and theories that underpin the behaviourist approach to psychology. I will subsequently outline how behaviourist theory can provide therapists with some insight into both the causes of maladaptive behaviour and how that behaviour might be sustained and maintained. Having discussed the main behaviourist principles and how they relate to maladaptive behaviour, I will then compare and contrast the behavioural approach with the psychoanalytic (Freudian)
*Publication manual of the American psychological association (6th ed.) (2009). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Please see note below regarding this edition of the APA manual.
principal fields, with scenarios: developmental, physiological/biological, personality, clinical/counseling, social, industrial/organizational. Perhaps the field that best umbrellas the author’s firsthand experience is Physiological/Biological Psychology, since the
In principle, psychopathology is the scientific study of mental disorders and their origin; in addition, this field of study examines the causes, development, and possible treatment for the disorders. Essentially, psychopathology encompasses three aspects that are considered as directly related to the mental disorders. These facets include the biological considerations, social issues, and psychological aspects of any mental condition. In fact, the initial perception of mental illness was associated with religious issues such
This essay will begin by discussing the main assumptions of the cognitive, psychodynamic and biological approach to psychology. It will look at a study that supports each approach. In addition it will look at how the studies have been influential in psychology today. Finally it will include some of the different branches of psychology and why these are relevant to different health professionals.
The biomedical model of health takes into account the physical or biological quality of life and is widely used in the Western medicine approach to health (Gurung, 2104). A basic assumption of this model is that the mind and body connection is irrelevant. Many advances in medicine have occured because of the biomedical model of health. In using evidence-based medicine it has been possible to evaluate the results of clinical and pharmaceutical research in order to make strides in medicine (Ashton, 1999). It takes advantage of algorithmic treatment options. Even though this approach may be more difficult for a psychiatrist to utilize when diagnosing and treating a patient, this model has radically shaped psychotherapy research and psychiatric medication (Deacon, 2013). The biomedical approach lends itself more readily to research because of its quantitative nature and it is less subjective than the biopsychosocial approach when measuring emotions and culture.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Maturation is especially important for individuals as it provides several competitive evolutionary advantages (Locke & Bogin, 2006). Through this process, individuals develop and acquire control over their emotions and behaviours. This ability to monitor and adapt our emotions, cognition and behaviours in accordance to the social and intellectual demands of particular contexts is often referred to as self-regulation (Demetriou, 2000; Zimmerman, 2000). Various complex cognitive skills are required for self-regulation. These skills encompass the constant observation of our thoughts and behaviours, knowledge of the demands of any situation, the capability to alter conditions of our current behaviour as required to achieve a goal or suit a situation and attention to how favourably the demands of a context are met (Evans & Rosenbaum, 2008).