Most Common Type Of Cancer Worldwide Essay

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Cancer is the leading cause of death in the world. An astounding average of 1.6 million deaths occur due to lung cancer every year, making it the most common type of cancer worldwide (1). Lung cancer is broadly classified into two types: small cell and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). 85% of all lung cancer cases are NSCLC. NSCLC has several different histologic subtypes, some of which are: squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. Of the three, adenocarcinoma accounts for more than 50% of all NSCLC cases, making it the most common subtype of NSCLC (2).

Adenocarcinoma is predominantly present in male smokers, however its occurrence in women, non-smokers, and young patients (below age 40) has been increasing (3). Consequently, genetic alterations / mutations that may be targeted to treat adenocarcinoma are being highly studied, which include: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), Anaplastic Lymphoma Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (ALK), Thyroid Transcription Factor 1 (TTF1), Napsin A, and more (4). The EGFR gene mutations seem to be the most significant in adenocarcinomas, specifically deletions in Exon 19, and / or point mutations in Exon 21 (5). Similarly, almost 5% of all NSCLCs are associated with a rearrangement in the ALK gene as well, leading to the expression of abnormal proteins that form highly proliferating cells (6).

As a result, recent molecular and translational research is introducing target-based therapies for the management of
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