Organizational Paradigms Essay

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Organizational Paradigms: Rational, Natural and Open Systems
University of Phoenix

Organizational Paradigms: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems What are organizations? How do we construct successful organizations? What is the most effective organizational structure or culture? Jones (2007) defines an organization as a tool individuals use to coordinate actions in an effort to achieve goals. “Organizational culture is a by-product of the interaction between employer and employee” (Baker, 2009, p.28). The culture, values and objectives of the organization are established by organizational leaders. According to Ohm (2006), “it is the set of unspoken interactions, relationships and expectations
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Wal-Marts’ supply chain management system decreased time and excess costs causing it to be the envy of the industry.
Natural Systems Contributions to the natural perspective of organizations came from various schools of thought. Theorist viewed organizations as social systems, in which individuals within the organization were viewed as effective contributors. The Cooperative System concept developed by Chester Barnard suggested that the contributions of individuals were integrated within organizations (Scott & Davis, 2007). The belief was that motivated individuals worked collectively to achieve the defined goals of the organization. Selznick’s institutional approach, which characterized organizations as adaptive organisms, believed that environmental changes impacted organizational structure and design. Parson’s AGIL Schema was designed to be applied to social systems. The basic needs outlined in the model are adaptation, goal attainment, integration, and latency. “Parsons’s framework emphasizes a set of functional needs that all social systems must satisfy in order to survive” (Scott et al, 2007, p.79).

Organizational leaders develop specific goals and objectives, but the overall behavior of the individuals within the organization are not guided by them. “Similarly, formal role definitions and written rules may have been developed, but all too frequently they exhibit little or no influence on the behavior of members” (Scott & Davis, 2007, p. 29).
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