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Overview of HIV AIDS

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Overview of HIV/AIDS
1.1.1 Discovery Records show that Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was first observed in the United States in the early 1980’s among healthy young intravenous drug users and gay men, who came down with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP), opportunistic cryptococcal or cytomegalovirus infections and some rare malignancies like Kaposi’s sarcoma that are known to occur in patients with compromised immune system (1). The rising incidences of PCP infections and Kaposi’s sarcoma in an unusual population prompted the task force team formed at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to monitor the outbreak (2-4). The term Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was coined to name the fatal disease in 1982 (5). Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Robert Gallo in apparently independent research work both isolated the etiologic agent of AIDS and published their findings in the same issue of the Science Journal in 1983 (6,7). While the Barré-Sinoussi’s group believed lymphadenopathy-associated Virus (LAV) was the causative agent of AIDS, Gallo's group insisted on HTLV-III (human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type 3) (8). A consensus was reached in May 1986 by the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses, and the name HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) was adopted (9). Outbreaks of wasting and severe infections were also observed in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) by researchers at the California Regional Primate Research Center
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