P4 - explain the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism in the body

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The cardiovascular system
The heart is a major organ in the body, this organ pumps blood around the body, through veins, capillaries and arteries. The blood carries oxygen to our cells and also carries waste products which include water and carbon dioxide, which are products of respiration. Blood also helps spread out salts, enzymes, urea, nutrients, hormones and heat across the body.
The structure of the heart
The heart is located between lungs and it is protected by the rib cage, it is thought to be the same size as a closed fist. The heart is protected a membrane called pericardium, this membrane contains a film of fluid which helps prevent fiction. Each side of the heart consist of an atrium and a ventricle. The right side of the …show more content…

People who have high blood pressure are putting more strain on the arteries, and this could be dangerous because it could lead to things such as heart attacks and strokes. Blood pressure can be measured by a sphygmomanometer.
Blood Vessels
Arteries main feature is to carry blood from the heart to the organs
They also have a round lumen
The have very thick muscular walls
Arteries have to carry blood under high pressure
Carries blood that are high in oxygen
Blood being carried by the veins is deoxygenated blood, blood that is high in carbon dioxide
The blood is being carries to the heart from the organs
Has an oval lumen
Walls are thin
Veins have to carry blood under low pressure
Walls are formed from epithelium cells
Capillaries connect arteries to veins.
They collect respiratory waste
They deliver a protein free plasma Structure and function of blood
“Erythrocytes contain haemoglobin, an important respiratory pigment that is essential for human life” (Strech, Beryl; Whitehouse, Mary;, 2010) Haemoglobin is very important because it is an iron-containing protein.
Pulmonary and systemic circulations
Pulmonary circulation is the circulation of the deoxygenated blood through the pulmonary arteries and oxygenated blood through the pulmonary veins. Each organ gets a supply of blood and this is because each organ has an arterial and venous. “The systemic circulation comprises all the blood vessels not involved in the

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