Paavlovian Prodition And Unconditioned Rating : Classical Conditioning Theory

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Pavlovian conditioning, also known as classical conditioning, was a theory developed by John Watson (1913). The theory included learning a new behavior through association. In other words, two stimuli are connected together to create a new response within an animal or a person. Pavlovian conditioning consisted of conditioned stimulus (US), unconditioned stimulus (UCS), condition response (CR) and unconditioned response (UCR). In Pavlov’s (1902) case, food was UCS and salivation was UCR. Then later on when he associated food with a bell, the dog began to salivate. In the end, every time the bell was rung, the dog began to salivate without seeing any kind of food. As long as the two stimuli are presented in a short amount of time, in this …show more content…

As for instrumental conditioning, a rat has to voluntarily work to receive the reward, almost as if it’s a motivation. If a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus is associated with a reward, it will enhance instrumental responding towards the same reward or different. A basic PIT procedure was performed by Estes (1948), which included one positive conditioned stimulus and one lever press. Previous research on transfer was complicated due to lever press training done first. So Estes (1948) decided to train the Pavlovian acquisition before allowing the rats to lever press. In the beginning the rats were reward during each tone (CS), then lever press was required to receive a reward. At the end, there was a greater increase of lever pressing by the rats when the tone was present, versus when it was silent. However, the research done by Estes (1948) only included reward and no extinction. Azrin and Hake (1969) revealed the phenomenon of conditioned suppression in which the rate of response is reduced due to stimulus being paired with a non-contingent shock. However, this study used a non contingent reinforce rather than an aversive shock. When the rats pressed the lever, they were reinforced with food or water. During this time, a stimulus was presented with a non-contingent positive reinforce, which was either food, water or brain stimulation. For the rats that were trained with water, were now given food instead and vice versa. However, the rats were placed in an open

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